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vjen in ploughman-plural D'nin (§ 24. ii.), stat. constr. wirin; 4. To segolate nouns having as second letter 1 or ', which in the

absolute state of the plural rests in cholem or tsere; e.g. 1998 iniquity-plural Dypis (§ 24. iv. 2), stat. constr. Jix ;

Six ram, bosna » ), „ &; and 5. To words the last leicer of which is properly double ; e.g,

by people-plural D'ay ($ 24. vi.), stat. constr. 'Oy;
yn arrow – „ D'IM ( ), „ ;

timbrel- „ D'AMC „ ), „ 'DA;
yo evil- „ d'yra „ ), 'Y7;

na snare, binei „ , „ me. But, II. Words with pure kamets in the ultima and an invariable vowel in the penultima, change the kamets into sh’va mobile, or, if it stands under a guttural, into chateph-pathach ; e.g. apie star-plural D'apla ($ 24. i. 2), stat. constr. '2917;

angel » D'IN? ), „ '80. III. Words with pure kamets or tsere both in the ultima and the penultima, take a short auxiliary chirek, or with gutturals, pathach, since the vowels of both syllables are shortened into sh’va; e.g. Sering proverb — plur. Dospin ($ 24. iii.), stat. const. spin (for svip);

139 humble - „ D'!JY! ( „ ), „ DIY („ ?3Y); 757 short „ D?? ( - ), „ 77 (, '?P); hyn court -- „ D’nin ( , ), „ '79D ( „ '$M);

and hence also 78 ornament — „ D'7&PC „ ), 78P ( „ '789).

As the construct state of the plural is considered to be formed immediately from the absolute state, the third letter of the noun, if an aspirate (a, a, 7, etc.), receives no dagesh lene, although the preceding syllable has the appearance of being both short and closed (comp. $ 4. 5. d); e.g. 217 untruth -- , '2!); Jņ profane D'aum, 'DN.

IV. The segolate-nouns follow, on the whole, the same rules as those just stated; they take an auxiliary vowel under the first consonant, and have no dagesh lene in the third radical, if this is an aspirate;' but that auxiliary vowel is either pathach, chirek, or

kamets chatuph, in accordance with the original vowel of the words ($ 22. 5. f); e.g.

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The words of the form 703 which begin with 1 or y, take segol in the penultima instead of chirek or pathach (comp. & 16. 8); e.g.

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B.—THE PLURAL TERMINATION OG is retained in the construct state, since the consonant is considered too strong to be discarded. Hence

I. The construct state of the plural coincides with the absolute state,

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2. If the words end in ~ or -~, in which cases, however,

they cannot have kamets before the termination ni (s 24. vii.);

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absolute state is niyan. II. (a). Words with pure kamets or tsere in the syllable preceding the termination, change those vowels into sh’va mobile, or, if the first consonant of that syllable is a guttural, into chateph-pathach; e.g.

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(6). If the syllable which has the pure vowel begins with sh’va, an auxiliary vowel, chirek, pathach, or segol, is rendered necessary (see 8 27. B. iii. b); e.g.


צְדָקָה justice plur ,צְדָקוֹת . stat . constr ; (צדְקוֹת for) צִדְקוֹת .

-wall גְדֵרָה


; (גְדְרוֹת , ) גִדְרוֹת

-wise חֲכָמָה


; (חֲכְמוֹת ,) חַכְמוֹת

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III. The segolate-nouns, therefore, convert the pure kamets of the absolute state of the plural into sh’va, and then take their original vowel in the new or auxiliary syllable (8 22. 5. f); e.g.

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whereas the construct state of the singular takes dagesh in such cases, because it is more directly connected with the absolụte state of the

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EXERCISE XVIII. Write the status constructus of the plural of the following words :

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$ 29. THE DUAL. 1. The dual, which, at an earlier period of the language, was probably one of the regular numbers common to all nouns, is in the Books of the Old Testament chiefly found of those substantives which denote the double members or organs of the human and animal body, as hands, eyes, horns, and of those expressing objects which consist of two chief or component parts, as scales, mill-stones, a pair of tongs.

Adjectives never have the dual.

2. The termination of the absolute state of the dual is O., and that of the construct state ; and nouns ending in 7, change the i7

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3. As regards the vowels, the dual undergoes precisely the same modifications as the plural, both in the absolute and the construct state. It will, therefore, suffice to give examples closely corresponding to the various classes specified with respect to the formation of the plural ($ 24); but it must be remarked in addition, that the absolute dual, particularly that of the segolate-nouns, shortens its vowels sometimes to a greater extent than the absolute plural, after the analogy of the construct state of this number; e.g. DYD step, time - dual DDYP (for D'OY?), 'SY? (see infra iv. 772, 173, 1775).

I. 1. Words with unch

pisa window — dual Digiga, ogibn;

mmx cubit „Dinar, "MAX. 2. Words with changeable kamets in the ultima and an unchangeable vowel in the penultima :

harjo fold — dual Dinpun, 'neva. II. Words with changeable tsere in the ultima and an unchangeable vowel in the penultima :

3?O scale – dual D!!RD, ' III. Words with a changeable or unchangeable vowel in the ultima and a pure kamets or tsere in the penultima:

ytawi week – dual Diyan, 'yuan;

1979 wing - „ dag, 'D??;

ama shoulder — „ bang, 'ang. IV. The dual of segolate-nouns is regarded as being directly 1

derived from the original forms, and hence the third letter, if an aspirate, generally takes dagesh lene, both in the construct and the shorter absolute state, as 779 (originally 772) knee — 0:379 (for 0:279), 379. 1. ??? horn - dual D!277 or 0:3??, ???;

IX ear – » Diye (for DJIN), '3?$ ;

7778 light „ !77(„D:778), '77*. 2. 19 eye „ DzY, ?'y..

mis cheek— „bom?, m. V. Words ending in 17 :

m! millstone - dual Dinr, 'N?;

TW (for 77%) breast — dual Dime, '70.
VI. Words the last letter of which is properly double :

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you tooth – dual D'IV, 30. VII. 1. Feminines ending in 17, with a changeable vowel in the preceding syllable :

ppt lip - dual binov, Nov. 2. Feminines ending in on, or na:

myyn cymbal — dual sim yo;

nein? fetter - „ Dinun?. 4. Some nouns occur only in the dual, though they have the meaning of the singular, as a water (st. const. 'Q), D:heaven (st. const. 'DW), 2:797! Jerusalem; no doubt in harmony with their primitive, but now obscure or uncertain signification.

EXERCISE XIX. Write the absolute and the construct state of the dual of the following nouns :

The words which form the status absolutus with the shorter vowels of the status constructus (see supra No. 3), are marked with an asterisk.

2 thousand ; 98 (vi.) nose; "Dax in dual soles of the feet; 757 (sg. a) door ; 777 (sg. a) way; y7m in dual loins ; * yn (sg.) fist ;

hand; die day; 77 thigh ; 79 talent ; ? (sg. 1) double ;

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