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words also, but only in letters provided with sh’va, e.g. 777, Pn (for 77, 327); XD! (for 'XD),; and chiefly in the weak letters !, 1, and the liquids 1, 2, 3, e.g. 01777, D'7) (for '70, DVy), magn, Syns, d'yY3(for vopna, Spas, Dinn), but scarcely ever in the six aspirates, because their pronunciation would be altered by the omission, as wxa, 1793!), PR.

6. If a word terminating in a vowel or quiescent letter, is very closely connected with the following word, the first consonant of the latter is almost necessarily doubled in rapid or fluent reading, and takes, therefore, frequently a dagesh forte called dagesh forte conjunctivum or euphonicum ; e.g. W PIW (Ps. lxviii. 19), x nyping (cxviii. 25), 15 P'YO (Judg. xvi. 16); even 7 may, under such circumstances,, be furnished with dagesh, e.g. nr.7918 (Isa. xxxix. 12), 87 (Job xxxiii. 21; comp. § 11.5);, and both words are

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(Jer. iii. 15), 71, 72-72 (Exod. iv. 2).

7. It can scarcely ever be doubtful whether a dagesh is lene or forte. An uncertainty can, in fact, arise only in connection with the six letters », 2, 7, 3, 2, 7, because these alone can take either kind of dagesh.

Now, as a general rule, the aspirates have dagesh lene only when they begin a syllable, and when this syllable is not preceded by a vowel closely connected with it; hence they take it

(a). Always at the beginning of a new sentence; e.g. h'way (Gen. i. 1).

(6). At the beginning of a new word, if the preceding one terminates in a consonant; e.g. X7 n'oxy (ibid.).

(c). At the beginning of a new word, if the preceding one, though terminating in a vowel, is not closely connected with it in sense ;& e.g. by | 12? (Gen. i. 27); but my (ver. 7, and it was so). . (d). In the middle of a word, at the beginning of a new syllable, that is, after sh’va quiescens; e.g. Omn (comp. § 4. 5. d, f).

(e). At the end of words concluding with two consonants ; e.g. ma! (Job xxxi. 27; comp. & 4. 5. b). .

However, the terminations 7, D, and , never take dagesh lene, even if sh’va quiescens precedes; e.g.777 8. Hence it is evident :

& That is, if it has a distinctive accent; see § 12. 3.

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(a). If the aspirates have a dagesh at the beginning of a word, or in the middle of a word after sh’va quiescens, it is generally dagesh lene, since at the beginning of syllables reduplication cannot properly take place; e.g. Om is not ttam, but tam; 12 is mar-peh, not marp-pe.

(6). The first letter of a word may indeed have dagesh forte euphonicum (see No. 6); but as this is only employed when the preceding word, closely connected, terminates in a vowel or quiescent letter, and as just in such cases dagesh lene is not permitted, a doubt cannot possibly arise ; e.g. 910 7727, 3017), lyg 77878.

(c). Dagesh in aspirates at the end of words, whether after sh’va quiescens or not, is dagesh lene, e.g. 3w., mns (see $ 4. 2), since dagesh forte is never written at the end of words (see No. 5).

(d). If the aspirates have dagesh in the middle of a word without being preceded by shva, it is dagesh forte, as, within, words, dagesh lene stands only after sh’va quiescens (No.7.d); e.g. 2D is s'ak-kel, not s'a-kel ; 12D is s'ob-bu, not so'-bu ; 179D is s'ap-peru. Sh’va beneath the aspirate itself is, in such cases, sh’va mobile, since, for instance,

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I. State whether, and why, dagesh occurring in the following words, is lene or forte.

6 If two words belong together in sense, they are connected by the sign ~; if not, they are separated by a perpendicular line ( 1 ).

1. 1977); 2. 1978; 3. DION; 4. 77777; 5. /?plin; 6.1972; 7. 1979); 8. 1777 jais; 9. nnp Sy; 10. 203?; 11.1072; 12. '39 1937???; 13.178 N; 14. napa; 15. AM); 16. *? 1 13m3!; 17.1977; 18.78; 19. Divi; 20. 117 ; 21. ominairy; 22.577; 23.1789-107; 24. '317; 25.0 70; 26. ma'; 27. nme:; 28. mx; 29. 897 55; 30. nogen; 31.

o mnuin; 32. HDP TO!; 33. 778; 34. X77778; 35.7925mm; 36. 1907

II. Write the following words, adding dagesh lene where it is necessary.

6 In these examples the chirek is short, except when succeeded by a quiescent (comp. $ 4.5.d). The correct application of dagesh forte requires a thorough acquaintance with grammar and etymology.

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If the weak letters &, 7, 1, and ', are not quiescent, but have the sound and force of consonants, they receive a dot called mappik. Although this sign is in manuscripts equally applied to all four letters,

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In order to indicate that letters have neither dagesh lene, nor dagesh forte, nor mappik, they were in ancient copies of the Old Testament provided with a small horizontal line, which is called rapheh (denoting softness), but is not very frequently employed in our printed edi

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xxxii. 42; comp. Lev. xiii. 4; xxvi. 35; Isai. xviii. 5; Ezek. xxiv.6; Prov. xii. 28; xxi. 22; Job xxxi. 22).

$ 8. OF THE SYLLABLES. 1. If a syllable terminates in one or two strong consonants, that is, if its last letter has, or ought to have, a sh’va quiescens, it is

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& Which means causing to come forth or sounding distinctly.

if it terminates in a yowel or, a weak quiescent letter, it is termed open or simple, e.g. 7? or 7 . A letter followed by dagesh forte belongs to a closed syllable; thus the first syllable in 19% is closed, since this word is a contraction instead of 13°?? (8 5. 1).

2. All syllables commence with consonants; 1 u (and), which is properly !, forms the only real exception, e.g. 10-11 U-min (see $ 4. 6.c; comp. also $ 16. 5).

3. A letter with sh’va mobile, whether simple or compound, belongs, of course, to the following consonant, and forms the first part of the syllable, as 1790179 gedo-lah ; 127?! yir-havu.

$ 9. THE MAKKEPH (Ope). If two or more words are to be so connected as to make one word with regard to tone and pronunciation, they are joined by a small horizontal line (or hyphen) placed between ther, and called makkeph (which signifies connection); e.g. 219-, 1980 -bx}, -5- Sy yop . Some monosyllables are invariably, others very frequently, so united with the succeeding words; and if terminating in a consonant, they generally shorten the vowel, if it was long; in this manner are used -p, -58, DX, -(for 7x), D], "3, -53 (for 55), X5, X5, -79, -by, -v, je comp. & 17. ii. 1).

$ 10. THE METHEG (ano). In many cases, Hebrew words are provided with a sign intended to check the pronunciation where it seems apt to be unduly hastened; it is called metheg, meaning bridle or check, and consists of a small perpendicular line placed on the left of the vowel, or in the case of cholem, and of shurek with , under the consonant; and forming a sort of semi-tone, it has the desired effect of prolonging or retarding the utterance of the vowel to which it is joined. Hence the following rules will be self-evident:

1. Open syllables always, and closed syllables frequently, take the metheg if they stand in the second syllable before the tone, in order to secure their proper weight ; e.g. Y'D7, D , D78777, opa?, D'Ngin, banyan, niddin, niidna

2. With regard to metheg, the simple sh’va mobile and the compound sh’va are of course not considered as forming syllables; e.g.

To mark the tone-syllable, we | the sign, placed over the consonant have throughout this book chosen / which bears the vowel of the syllable. is nish-berah, or 1790! yis'-ch'aru, the chirek stands in the first, not in the second syllable from the tone, and requires no metheg. Hence the syllable :1 and is, as a rule, not provided with that sign, since it is originally !, e.g. (Gen. i. 18).

3. The metheg is applied with long vowels followed by sh’va, and indicates that the latter is sh’va mobile ; e.g. 15. ye-lechu, 7 0 ,

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in the first syllable, because the chirek is short, and, as the dagesh in the following aspirate proves, the sh’va is sh’va quiescens. Hence before sh’va is kamets, if accompanied by metheg; but kamets chatuph, if without this sign; eg.771 is -cherah, but 1771 is zóch-rah.

4. The rules just stated apply equally to syllables of the same word, and to those of different words joined by makkeph ; e.g. in-xes, 15

17, S-mpm, om-yon, is-mim, -. 5. The vowel which precedes a compound sh’va takes metheg, except when the consonant that is provided with the compound sh'va has dagesh forte; e.g. 'JY37, vm. 1570, 72719, but ninga, niina,

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A77X, the metheg is employed according to a preceding rule (No. 3). .

6. If a word combines several of the conditions here stated, or includes one of them several times, it may have two methegs; e.g.

A metheg is considered as forming a tonesyllable with regard to the application of another metheg; hence Dany va has a metheg with r, because it is the second syllable from ); and similarly oniminian, miny.


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EXERCISE -VII. 6 All the words here introduced have the tone on their last syllable, except the few which are differently marked.

I. State the reasons why metheg is employed in the following words:

1. 1978; 2. Spracop; 3. pinza-bg; 4. me?; 5. mengen; 6. DIP87; 7.597-5y; 8. XXXp; 9. Dog); 10. Beyad; 11. N9; 12. exp; 13.5598m; 14. 10; 15. naond; 16.3578; 17. 99pum-5; 18. INAWA ; 19. bpm ; 20. Kyn"?

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