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sailor; ')? to the poor ($ 21. 5).

3. The vocative is generally expressed by the noun with the article ; e.g. :7 O boy! (1 Sam. xvii. -58); D! W O heavens ! (Deut. xxxii. 1; comp. Isai. xxi. 5; Ezek. xxxvii. 4); and sometimes by the simple noun without the article; e.g. 28 earth! DDV heavens! (Isai. i. 2; comp. Jer. xxii. 29; Ps. cxlviii. 2-4).

4. (a). There is, however, one termination which may be regarded as pointing to an early beginning of a declension, namely the toneless syllable 7, which, mostly appended to the singular, denotes the direction to the place implied by the noun, and which is therefore called i locale ; e.g. ginan Hebron - 7iian to or towards Hebron;

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(6). The segolate-nouns the original vowels of which are a or o, resume or retain them before 17 locale ; e.g. 97 (for 7777) chamber -7770; 1V well03:V; in threshing floor - 737; Spis tent -7578; while those which have originally i take for the most part tsere

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(c). The nouns the last letter of which is properly doubled, are furnished with dagesh forte in that consonant, while their vowels are, on the whole, changed in the same manner as before the plural terminations ($ 24. vi.), except that the long vowel kamets may remain, since it does not lose the tone; e.g. 79 (for 77%) side-78; na Gathoma and ama; o sea-19 to the sea (but b'd', see § 11. 4. c,d).

(d). Nouns in 177 change this termination into a before 17 locale ; e.g. 71Y Gaza - oppy.

EXERCISE XVI. Translate into Hebrew :

The preposition to is to be rendered by the dative, towards or into by o locale.

To Joseph (981'); the wind (acc. 7); O princes! (110, $ 24, vi.); to words (727); to the words; to the Egyptian women (n'aya); to Bilhah (1777?); to a mouth (179); to the mouth; to assistance (17992); to the wise man (97); to wise men; to the wise men; towards Gibeah (ay?); the Arabians (acc. "27); to a son (12); to the son; O son ! to eternity (ny); to a curtain (178°?!); to valleys (Pay); to, the valleys; into the shade (58); to Eliphaz (1978); to a dream (Disn); to the dream; to a ship (2x); to the ship; into the house (63); to a fool (598); to the fool; to a land (

fx, sg. a); to the land; into a land; to a foundation (71D!); to months (W7); to the months; to righteous men (709); to the righteous men; towards Kedesh (W7, sg. 1); towards Riblah (17727); to a stranger (79); to the stranger; to the sword (277); towards Timnah (79m).

§ 26. THE GENITIVE: CONSTRUCT STATE. 1. The Hebrew language shares with other Shemitic idioms a peculiar mode of expressing the relations of the genitive case. To illustrate it by an example, let the following two propositions be compared: they made a covenant, and they made a covenant of peace. In the former, the word covenant has full and undivided weight; in the latter, the chief stress lies on peace, while covenant has only a subordinate tone, which is no less apparent if the term covenant of peace is changed into its equivalent peace-covenant. Analogously to such English compound terms, the connection between a substantive and its dependent genitive is conveyed in Hebrew, but with this difference, that the governing noun retains the first place, while it is made the inferior word as regards the tone, which hastens on towards the dependent substantive, since this bears the principal emphasis of the complex notion. The governing noun, thus deprived of a part of its force, is said to be in the construct state or status constructus, and it will be easily understood that, pressed to a more rapid pronunciation, it shows a decided tendency to shorten its variable vowels, and to modify or throw off the weaker consonants of the terminations. For instance,

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tongue is jiwą, wisdom 799m, and the tongue of wisdom or wisdom's

. While, therefore, in other languages the dependent genitive is modified, in Hebrew the governing noun is liable to changes. All substantives which are not in the construct state, are described as being in the absolute state or status absolutus.

2. Two, three, and more nouns in the construct state may naturally follow in succession ; e.g. the rest of the number of the archers of the heroes of the sons of Kedar (Isai. xxi. 17; comp. x. 12; Josh. iii. 11). $ 27.—THE CONSTRUCT STATE OF THE SINGULAR.

In forming the construct from the absolute state of the singular, the following rules are observed :

A.—IF THE WORDS HAVE NO FEMININE TERMINATION. I. Identical in the absolute and construct state are

1. The nouns and adjectives with unchangeable vowels, as diz

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last two having impure kamets); 2. Monosyllables with tsere, or plurisyllables with tsere in the

ultima and an unchangeable vowel in the penultima, as De

name, hain guardian ; 3. The monosyllables which have properly the last syllable double

($ 22. 5. e), and are not provided with the vowel kamets (see iii.), as 7? poor, 10 tooth, om perfect, nor followed by makkeph,

, O ($ 17. ü. I); and 4. Most of the segolate-nouns, as om bread, y) boy, Syd deed,

IV. ornament. However, II. Segolate-nouns with or 1 as second radical, let those weak letters rest in tsere or cholem respectively, as in the plural ($ 24. iv. 2); e.g. 1.V eye-'; 17x injustice118; X? or 'a valley- or

III. Monosyllables with pure kamets, or plurisyllables with pure kamets in the ultima and an unchangeable vowel in the penultima,

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jer time-21; 3313 star-1913; nam choice-nan.

IV. Words with an unchangeable vowel in the ultima and a pure kamets or tsere in the penultima, convert the latter vowels into sh’va, or if standing under a guttural, into chateph-pathach; e.g. in honour – 913; ji7p lord—117; restoring — g'ujq; yaxy pain

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If the kamets or tsere of the penultima is preceded by sh’va mobile, the construct state forms, of course, a short vowel, chirek or pathach, instead of the two sh’vas which would successively follow (§ 4. 6. a);

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V. Words with pure kamets or tsere both in the ultima and the penultima, replace the vowel of the former by pathach, that, of the

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any variable vowel that precedes is shortened into sh’va ; e.g. 1787 appearance-7872; 79 field—77.

B.--IF THE WORDS HAVE A FEMININE TERMINATION. I. The nouns ending in n ~ and n-~ remain unaltered ; e.g.

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II. In order to effect a closer connection with the following substantive, the termination 7 is invariably altered into n-, and if the preceding vowels are unchangeable, no other modification takes place ; e.g. 1778 song - 67'; 78') prophetess - 08"}; 17x command— niya; 1777 statute - App; 1778 (for 773) trouble

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172778 (from 278) love-28; 799? (from yor) tear-nya? But

III. (a). Words ending in 17– which have pure kamets or tsere in the preceding syllable, change these vowels into sh’va mobile; e.g. 1798 year- n°; non poison - nam.

(6). If sh’va mobile precedes such kamets or tsere, it is converted into short chirek, or, if the sh’va is under or before a guttural, into pathach or segol (as in A. iv. ; $ 4. 6. a); e.g. 179?? revenge nop? (for 127}); -77777 splendour—77777(for 177.7); npyy outcry - pyy (for mpyy); n cattle-1972 (for naza, $ 16. 4).

EXERCISE XVII. Write the construct state of the singular of the following words: 58 (sg.) mourning ; 128 (sg.) stone; 122X dust, powder ; 78,(sg.)

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habitation ; 411 Nazarite ; ? (sg.) inheritance ; "'p! purity; 7pin appointed time, festival ; yra plantation ; Saya path; "p?

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§ 28. THE CONSTRUCT STATE OF THE PLURAL.

The construct state of the plural is derived directly from the absolute state of the same number, and as the general character of the status constructus is that of close connection with the following noun, more considerable changes become necessary in the plural than in the singular on account of the terminations D'- and 14. As regards

A.-WORDS WITH THE PLURAL TERMINATION D'-, they change, as a fundamental rule, this ending into the lighter form ; for by throwing off the liquid D, a more intimate relation with the governed genitive is possible. If after this change, the word consists exclusively of invariable vowels, it undergoes no other modification; but if it contains a variable kamets or tsere, these vowels are usually shortened in accordance with the general principles of tone and vocalisation. Therefore,

I. The simple and general rule applies, without any additional alteration,

1. To words with unchangeable vowels ; e.g.

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gisny window – „ o'pisn, „ gisa; 2. To words with an unchangeable vowel in the ultima and a

changeable kamets or tsere in the penultima ; e.g.

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Topy rich - „ d'anys „), „ quy; goopa interpreter — » Diyor ), „ ; 3. To words with changeable tsere in the ultima and an unchange

able vowel in the penultima ; e.g.

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