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7778 child (from 73, 75), nopp tribute (from 099, D??), 7977 desolation (from 977, 377), 77girl (from 73, Y.), 1770 captivity (from 20, 5); and if the second letter is one of the weak consonants 1 or ', it usuaļly reşts, respectively, in cholem or tsere, e.g. Siy, injustice (from Syy, Sy), 5 power (from Son, 5:77), though 777 also occurs (see § 34. iii. 5).

EXERCISE XIV. 1. Which of the following words are masculine, and which feminine? which common? and which epicene?

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2. Define the segolate-nouns, and state their principal forms.
$ 23. THE PLURAL OF NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES.

GENERAL RULES. 1. As a broad rule it may be stated, that the plural of masculine nouns and adjectives is formed by adding the termination b', to the singular; and the plural of the feminines, by changing 777 into hi, or if the singular has no characteristic feminine termination, by adding

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- oryn.

4. In the poetical, and in some of the later prosaical Books, the plural

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life, 197 messengers.d

5. By a remarkable peculiarity, many masculine nouns have in the plural the feminine termination hi, and many feminine nouns the masculine termination D'-, while others fluctuate between D'- and

1 pigeon - Dyplo; 777 (m.) generation

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larity, however, has no influence on the meaning and the gender of the nouns.e

6. Some substantives occur in the plural only, either with the signification of the plural or of the singular ; e.g. O'yn intestines, 'n life:p O'? has the sense both of face and faces. Other nouns are only used in the singular, but with plural signification; e.g. 88 sheep, 2 oxen or cows; while 70 lamb and 10 oz or cow are employed for the singular. § 24. THE PLURAL OF NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES.

SPECIAL RULES. I. 1. The rule stated at the beginning of the preceding section applies to all nouns and adjectives composed of unchangeable syl

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which is no full vowel, but merely an auxiliary sound to assist the pronunciation (S 16. 5), is lost before the plural termination; e.g. Die shrub-o'

nW; 1717 wind-hinan. 2. The same rule suffices for words with changeable kamets in the ultima and an unchangeable vowel in the penultima; e.g. Opvn judgment-D'Open; inpvp family-ninpun; n beautiful-nia,

In these and the following rules, the termination it is not regarded as forming an essential syllable; hence in maps, for instance, is treated as the ultima, po as the penultima.

a Ez k. xxvi. 18. b Job xxxi, 10. f More loc, cit. 6. c Job xxiv, 22.

8 And so b'x17 (Prov.x. 4) diligent • 2 Ki. xi. 13; comp. Judg. v. 10; men ; Dipino (2 Ki. ix. 32; xx. 18) 1 Ki. xi. 33; Ezek. iv. 9; xxvi. 18; officers; b'xin (Job vi. 23) violent Mic. ïïi. 12; Prov. xxxi. 3; Lam. i. 4; || men; Dir?? (Gen. 1. 9; 1 Sam. xiii. 5; Dan. xii. 13.

| 2 Sam. viii. 4, etc.) horsemen ; from e A complete list of such words porn for yoon, etc. will be found in Part II. S xxiii. 5.

II. However, if a changeable tsere is in the last and an unchangeable vowel in the preceding syllable, the words with a feminine termination form indeed the plural after the general rule; but the words without such termination change the tsere into shva mobile, or if the first letter of the ultima is a guttural, into chateph-pathach ;

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III. If the ultima has an unchangeable or changeable vowel, but the penultima either a changeable kamets or a changeable tsere, these latter vowels are converted into sh’va mobile, or if the first consonant of the syllable is a guttural, into chateph-pathach ; e.g, W172, holy

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D'-- and hi, the penultima with pure kamets or tsere is made to occupy the second place from the tone, and hence requires sh’va (§ 17. ii. 2).

If the consonant, the vowel of which is thus changed into sh’va, has

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IV. 1. The plural of the segolate-nouns has sh’vą mobile under the first, and kamets under the second consonant; but the sh’va mobile is replaced by chateph-pathach if the first letter is a guttural, and by chateph-kamets if, besides, the original vowel of the noun is 0; e.g.

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VI. Words the last letter of which is properly doubled, take dagesh forte in that letter, and generally shorten the vowel; as Dy or by people -D'HY; pl. fetter-O'P?; DM integrity-D'OM; 73 side-D'79 (17. ii. 3); but pathach remains frequently unaltered, as ? poor—0 7.

If the last letter is a guttural, the vowel, if long, is retained; if short, it is prolonged; e.g. 7 or bull—D'79; 72 bitter—D'. However, 1 may have dagesh forte implicitum (9, 16. 2), and is then preceded by a short vowel; e.g. my moist-on?.

VII. The feminines in n and r= take ni instead of these terminations, and generally lose the preceding vowel, which is changed into, sh’va mobile; e.g. naxy grief - HIZKY; npsna divisionnipsnio; nona tunic - nijna (for Diana; § 4. 6.a).

However, the vowel kamets is not unfrequently inserted before the plural termination, and sometimes cholem becomes chateph-kamets; e.g. nap knife-miszen; nna reproof - ninpin; nama tunie - hiina; mso ear of corn -obad.

EXERCISE XV. Write the plural of the following nouns and adjectives with the definite article:

The words are of masculine gender, except if distinguishable as feminines by their terminations, or if accompanied by the letter f, which stands for feminine.-sg. means segolate-noun.—The number (vi.), added in parenthesis, points to the sixth class above described, comprising the words the last consonant of which is properly doubled.

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§ 25. THE DATIVE, ACCUSATIVE, AND VOCATIVE;

LOCALE. 1. The Hebrew noun has developed no terminations to indicate the cases, and cannot, therefore, be said to have a proper declension. The dative both of the singular, the dual, and the plural is usually expressed by the prefix ?, an abbreviated form of the preposition : to; while the accusative is conveyed by the particle 78, or "ng with makkeph (§ 17. ii. 1); e.g. pry! Isaac — dative poly? to Isaac;

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2. The modifications which, under certain conditions, the prefix? undergoes, have been explained before ; namely, it is changed

(a). into ?, if the first consonant of the noun has simple sh’va;

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