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EXERCISE XII. 1. State how in each of the following examples 7

is to be read,

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2. Supply the vowels under the he interrogativum in the following words :

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B:-THE ARTICLE.

8 21. GENERAL RULES. 1. There exists in Hebrew no word for the indefinite article. The original form of the definite article was, undoubtedly, 77, as the kindred dialects prove, but the 7 is uniformly assimilated to the following letter (§ 5. 2); therefore, the definite article is ] with dagesh forte in the first consonant of the word before which it stands, and to which it is inseparably joined; it is the same for the various

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2. As the gutturals (X, 17, 1, y, and 7 do not take dagesh forte (8 5. 4), the following modifications of the principal rule become necessary :

(a). If the first letter of the word is & or 7, the article is in all instances, the dagesh forte being omitted, while, as a compensation, the pathach is prolonged into kamets ($ 16. 1); e.g. 1 x stone 12877; 717 wind-71777.

(6). If the first letter is y with any vowel except kamets, the article is likewise 17; e.g., 71997 the pillar, povn the valley, 77?? the calf,

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(c). The same is the case, if the first letter of the word is it or Y with kamets (?, *), and the first syllable has the tone; e.g. 37 the cloud.

(d). But if words beginning with For y have not the tone on this syllable, the article is ?; e.g. 1987 the multitude, in the cloud (comp. & 16. 9).

(e). If the first syllable has 7, the article is in all cases ?; e.g. 7877 the court, in the feast

(f). If the first letter has 7 or 1 with any vowel except kamets (as D],?, , , etc.), the article is simply 7], and the gustural has dagesh forte implicitum ($ 16. 2); e.g. ting the splendour, 177'777 the riddle, in the living, noong the wisdom (1 Ki. vii. 14; for the , under is kamets chatuph, $ 15. 3. a). .

3. If the word begins with sh’va, and especially if, moreover, the first letter is'or, or one of the liquids 0, 1, 5, the dagesh forte is generally omitted after the article ]; e.g. 7|D?? (2 Chr. xxii. 5), 78299 (Am. ii. 13); but it may also be retained, as O'nya(Jer. xxvi. 20), 78297 (Eccl. xi. 5; see § 5. 5).

4. Some monosyllables with the vowel pathach, if preceded by the article, take kumets instead of the short vowel, evidently because the article enhances the weight of the word; viz. 77 mountain -977 the mountain ; Dy people-DYO7; 7 bull -797; 73 adversary - 787; y? evil —Y777 (besides y77); and j'Ix land (for 1:78)–78.

5. If the article follows after one of the particles in, as, or ? to, the 7 is usually omitted, and the consonants 2, 5, and receive the vowel with which the 17 would be provided ; e.g. 2 7 the rain-pe?

* Comp. 1 Sam. xxiv. 31; 2 Ki. ix. 11; Jer. vi. 2; Ezek. xvi. 32 ; xlvi. 24.

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comp. & 17. iii. 3).

EXERCISE XIII. Write the following words with the article :

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window; pwy oppression ; jep smoke; by people (and with 2); 1' land (and with ); sy poor (and with); Spy hill (and with 2);

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(and with }); 7'xm grass (and with }); 1774. congregation (and with); 2j777 new ; 7'Y town (and with 3); 3977 milk (and with 2); wy moth (and with 7); hy time (and with ?); 577 vanity (and with ?); 97.7 splendour (and with 3); am feast (and with 7); 59'a palace (and with 3); 779 and (in pausa) 777 chamber (and with 3); un thread (and with 3); Sin sand (and with 3); 'm living (and with);

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The meaning of the Hebrew words contained in this and all the following exercises should be carefully committed to memory.

C.-THE NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. $ 22. GENDERS AND NUMBERS OF NOUNS. 1. The noun has two genders, the masculine and the feminine.

Besides the substantives expressing male persons and male animals, those are masculine which designate nations, mountains, rivers, and months ; e.g. ApiJoseph, no governor, 19 bull ; Digg the people of Edom (Num. xx. 20); 797 Carmel ; ;???Jordan; 778 Adar, the twelfth month of the Hebrew year.

Feminine are the names of countries and towns, the limbs and organs of the human and animal body which exist in couples, and of course the nouns to which that gender naturally belongs ; e.g.

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Some nouns denoting animals have, indeed, exclusively one gender, but are used to express both the male and the female; such epicenes are, for instance, the masculines 25 dog, y eagle, ning ox and cow,

turtle done ; and the feminines תּוֹר

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pigeon, 77'DM stork.

3. The masculine has no characteristic termination. The feminine ends frequently, but by no means uniformly, in it, or n; or in n-, if the last consonant of the root is a guttural; or in n'-or 7., especially if the last letter of the corresponding masculine iş a quiescent' or 1; e.g. 717 uncle-0771. aunt; paid babe-mp3l'; y im worm-nyzin;

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from the masculine will be explained in a later section (see $ 34).

4. There are in Hebrew three numbers—the singular, the duul, and the plural ; however, not many substantives, and no adjectives whatever, have the dual (see $ 29).

5. With reference to the nature and composition of syllables, the nouns and adjectives exhibit a very great variety; they can in that respect not be thoroughly understood without the aid of etymology and the verb; and it will suffice here to introduce those forms only which represent distinct classes with regard to inflection.

(a). Words with unchangeable vowels ($ 17, 1), as 79% rock, 52

Hence, if a nation and the land it | the land of Judah (Isa. iii. 8; Psa. inhabits, are expressed by the same cxiv. 2; comp. Jer. xlviii. 4, 11). noun, they are distinguished by their Gen. xxiv. 63 and xxxii. 16. gender. So 07717!, it masculine, is the Comp. Jer. ji. 21.

[31. tribe or people of Judah; if feminine, d Gen, xxx. 39 and Deut. xxviii.

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(6). Words with a changeable kamets or tsere in the last and an unchangeable vowel in the preceding syllable; as corruption, wiw judge; or with a feminine termination, as pe hammer,

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(c). Words with an unchangeable vowel in the ultima and a changeable kamets or tsere in the penultima; as 'n pleasant, 1928 faith, wenn flint; the feminines of this form have sh’va mobile in the first syllable, as p', 72108 ($ 17. ii. 2).

(d). Words with a changeable vowel both in the ultima and the penultima; as 121 old man, w7 new, heart; the feminines of this class take likewise sh’va mobile in the first syllable, as 17321, 707n.

(e). Words which have properly the last letter double, dagesh forte being omitted at the end of words ($ 5. 5); e.g. TY (from 178) strength,

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derivation that such words can be traced and ascertained.

(f). At an early period of the language, there existed in Hebrew a large number of monosyllabic nouns of three letters, having the vowel a or i or o under the the first, and a quiescent sh’va under either of the two last consonants, and a few such words have remained in use,

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easier pronunciation, by far the greater portion of those nouns was provided with an auxiliary segol under the second letter, or if one of the last two consonants is a guttural, with an auxiliary pathach, in addition to which the original vowel under the first consonant was commonly changed in a similar manner; e.g. 072 vineyard was substi

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words have been called segolate-nouns. They have the tone on the open first syllable, though it is generally short ($ 11. 4. a).-If the third letter is ', it rests in chirek, while the first consonant takes sh’va;

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Segolate-nouns having a feminine termination generally retain their original vowel, since they require no auxiliary sound, e.g.

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