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PREPOSITIONS, which fix the relations of nouns; then the ADVERBS, which qualify the verb or adjective; the CONJUNCTIONS, which connect different sentences or parts of the same proposition; and, finally, the INTERJECTIONS, being mere exclamations grammatically detached from the structure of the period.

§ 18. OF THE HEBREW ROOTS. 1. The Hebrew roots, like those of the other Shemitic idioms, consist almost invariably of three consonants which form two syllables ;

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2. Only a few words, denoting the most necessary or most familiar notions of the language, consist of two letters. They are partly nouns and pronouns, partly adverbs, conjunctions, and interjections.

A still smaller number of verbs and nouns is composed of four or more radical letters.

3. The consonants imply the fundamental meaning of the root, while all modifications in the sense are expressed by the reduplication or repetition of the consonants, or by a change of vowels, whether with or without quiescent letters, or by the addition of syllables at the begịnning (called preformatives) or at the end (called afformatives);

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ruled ; he is strong, 77933 strength, giao hero.—Eleven consonants, contained in the words 2?? ?x nun, are employed as preformatives and afformatives, and are therefore called servile letters, whereas the other eleven consonants are exclusively radical letters.



1. Only the nominative of the personal pronouns consists of distinct words; the remaining cases are conveyed by particles furnished with terminations, which are abbreviated or modified from the nominatives,

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and are called suffixes. The second and the third persons have separate forms for the masculine and the feminine. 2. The nominatives are:


Plural. 1st Person FX or j I JAx we. 2nd Pers. m. Am thou Dmx you. , f. mx thou

me or ime you. 3rd Pers. m. 89.7 he

On they.

O they. 3. If these pronouns stand in pausa, they have the following forms:

and 'jx; ongemas; 877-*?; umu; DAR-AX; 17 (see § 13. 2).

II. The Dative.

4. The dative of the personal pronoun is expressed by the preposition ? to, with suffixes, in the following manner:

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| 1st Pers. 2nd Pers. m. 2nd Pers. f. 3rd Pers. m. | 3rd Pers. f. | Sing. to me to thee 75 to thee is to him to her Plural 15$ to us to you (lz> to you) csis to them cáş to them 5. In pausa, 7 becomes ; the other forms remain unaltered. 6. It will be seen that the suffixes, as appended to ?, are : for the first person, – and 13;

„ second person, 7 and 71; 0 and 17;

» third person, i and 177; and I? Their connection with the nominatives is, in some cases, obvious (as '. and 'IX; DI?, ?, and 07, 17); while, in others, it can only be understood by reference to different or older forms of the nominative (see $$ 51. 3; 38. 2).

7. D and 1, 7 and 17 are termed heavy suffixes, and invariably have the tone; the others are called light suffixes.

8. In poetry, the termination 1 is not unfrequently employed for the third person plural; but it is considered as a light suffix, and has not the tone, as ia to them.

The kamets under in 5, nəs, bots, jois, is required by the laws of the tone (see § 11. 6).

III. THE ACCUSATIVE. 9. The accusative is expressed by nearly the same suffixes as the

dative , appended to the word (אוֹת or) את which is derived from ,אֶת

sign, and hence involves the demonstrative meaning that :

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10. With the exception of 77k, which is changed into onk, the forms remain unaltered in pausa. Ang is not found in the Books of the Old Testament.

11. Most of the accusatives are also written plene, with a quiescent 9 in the first syllable, viz. 'nix, 7nix, unix, inix, Mix, unix, oņix.

12. While the dative has in the third person plural the suffixes On and o?, the accusative has , and , 'the consonant it being omitted, and the vowel changed. Those forms are respectively chosen in accordance with rules which will later be specified (§ 30. Obs. 3). e and are regarded as light suffixes.


13. The genitive may be conveyed by means of the preposition 1 of or from, in the following manner:

1st Pers.

2nd Pers. m. 2nd Pers. f. 3rd Pers. m.

3rd Pers. f.

Sing. "popof me imp of thee mång of the Vâp of him nompof her Plural abp of us vip of you lõp of you bìaof them dăpof them

14. The etymology of some of these forms is not without difficulty. It may here suffice to observe, that ', 702, 792, 122, and 73pa, contain, besides the preposition 1°, also the noun 12 portion, so that, for instance, apo means literally of my portion.

De and imply regular assimilations instead of us and la ($ 5. 2), while 7 and 172 stand for me and the vowel in the first syllable being prolonged on account of the dagesh forte which is omitted in the guttural 17 (§ 16. 1).

700 becomes in pausa J29; the other forms remain unchanged.

15. It will be seen that the termination of the second person feminine is not , but 7., and that of the third person masculine not 1, but comp. 8:107 he). 930 is both of him and of us; the context must determine in every case which of the two is intended.

V. INDEFINITE Pronoun. 16. The words "

b 5 some one, or something, are used as an indefinite personal pronoun. They occur always together, and were, in later times, contracted into one word '32 .b

Various modes of expressing such indefinite pronouns for which no distinct words exist in Hebrew, will be explained in the Syntax.

EXERCISE XI. Translate : Of me.-To her.—You (nominative and accusative).—To them.Thou.—Thee.-Of us.—Of him.-We.-Us. To us.-He.-Him.To him.-Of her. She.—They.--To me.—Her. To thee. Of thee. -Them.-To you.—Of you.—Me.-Of them.- Define preformatives, afformatives, and suffixes, and explain the origin of the suffixes.


ROGATIVE PRONOUNS; THE DIRECT QUESTION. 1. The Demonstrative Pronoun in the masculine of the singular is 17! this, in the feminine ngit this, in the plural, both masculine and feminine, these. Sometimes the personal pronouns are used as demonstratives, namely, 4177, 87 that, 7, 177 those.

2. The Relative Pronoun for all genders and numbers is hoping who, which. It is sometimes, and chiefly in Ecclesiastes and the Song of Solomon, abbreviated into ” with dagesh forte (compensativum) in the first letter of the following word, with which it is combined into one, e.g. X5 (Eccl. ii. 21), for 85 70x, or without dagesh forte, if the next letter has sh’va or is a guttural, e.g. 1717W (Psalm cxliv. 15), 1970 (Eccl. iii. 15), 'mayo (Eccl. ii. 20).

a Ruth iv. 1; 1 Sam, xxi. 3; 2 Ki. vi. 8.

Dan. viii. 13.

3. The Interrogative Pronouns are " who? and what? used both for the masculine and the feminine, the singular and the plural. However, 7 is written 79 before the guttural 17, and often also before 17 and y, if not furnished with kamets; e.g. 18ən 72,871, 17'y 7. , But if 77, 77, and y have kamets, is commonly used; e.g.7779, Sanna, I n (comp. $ 16. 9). Before & and 7, the form na remains, e.g. Om 12, OAX?ID.

Sometimes, however, h is before non-gutturals also changed into na, whether it is closely connected with the following, word or not; e.g.!?!?!? ,

o ;and in the same manner nowhy? 792 with what? how many, occur for 125, P2, 102; e.g. an ninh,

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7, both in the sense of what? and how ? is often followed by makkeph with dagesh forte (conjunctivum)in the first letter of the next word, to which is thus closely joined, e.g. 8789979, 999772, ygan2 ;e and sometimes both words are even contracted into one; e.g., pf for 771772; & for n9; mab for 777-072; "Taşi for '979; Divxyank for min mora (comp. $ 5. 6).

If the interrogative adverb '8, which is equivalent to the longer form 178 where? is placed before a demonstrative pronoun, the latter

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wherefore ? (comp. $ 70. 2).

4. The simple direct question is introduced by 17 with chatephpathach (?), called 7 interrogativum, which is prefixed to the first word of the sentence; e.g. søn? wilt thou guard? mny777 hast thou killed ?

But ?? is changed into il before sh’va, and before the gutturals X, 17, n, y, if furnished with any vowel except kamets; e.g. Onn have you forgotten? Omr287 did you say? 177737 (Gen. xxvii. 38);

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* Jer. xi. 15; viii. 9; comp. xvi. 10; 1 e Gen. xxviii. 17; Cant. vii. 2 ; Ps. 1 Sam. iv. 6, 14; Ps. iv. 3; x. 13; | xxx. 10; comp. v. 9; Judg. xviii. 24; Isai. i. 5; Eccl. iii. 22.

etc. . Exod. iv. 2. b 1 Sam. i. 8. c Exod. xxii. 26. 8 Isa. iii. 15. b Mal. i. 13. Zech, vii. 3.

i 2 Chr. xxx. 3. * 1 Chr. xv. 13. '

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