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$ 13. OF THE PAUSA. 1. The last tone-syllable before the end or chief division of a period, that is, the syllable which in accentuated texts has silluk or athnach, or even a distinctive accent of less power, is said to stand - in the pause" or in pausa. As that syllable naturally gains a certain weight and force, its vowel, if short, is changed into the corresponding or a kindred long one, or into some other short

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mg7m277, 27-27; 10-90, 0-30, 777-072. If sh’va mobile commences the syllable, it is converted into the vowel which in any way is peculiar to the syllable, and then this vowel receives the tone ;, e.g. Nə (from NA)- mə); 598m (from Saxn axm; 958 (from 58-50; 38, 's-91, -20, 87– ; 770—7709; '7!1-7).

2. In some small words which have the tone on the ultima, the accent is removed to the penultima, in order to secure a more emphatic fall of the voice ; thus 'jx 1 becomes 'sję, mis thoumg;

my now— Ay; and for a similar reason, words ending in 4 have in pausa Tar; thus 77, 77, 79V, 7m8, 7mix, are changed into 72,

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xxviii. 13, 15), etc.

3. The changes of the pausa are sometimes found not only in syllables with segolta (Jer. xxxi. 8), zakeph-katon (Isai. xxx. 19, etc.), zakephgadol (Eccl. xi. 9), or tiphcha (Judg. xvii. 1), but also in syllables with reviah (1 Sam. viii. 11), pashta (Gen. xli. 50), tevir (Lev. v. 18), geresh (Ezek. xl. 4), great telisha (Deut. v. 14), initial tiphcha (Job ix. 20, 21), and shalsheleth (Isai. xiii. 8).

§ 14. KERI (°??) AND KETHIV (ang). 1. When the scholars who revised and finally fixed the text of the Hebrew Scriptures, found one reading in the current manuscripts which then represented the traditional text, but in other copies met with a different reading which they believed to be more genuine or more appropriate, and which they therefore desired to be adopted, they allowed indeed the former to remain in the text, but provided it with the vowels of the latter, the consonants of which they recorded on the margin, accompanied by the word "?? (kleri), that is, what is read (lectum or legendum); and in contradistinction to this, the reading embodied in the text was called kéthiv' (ang), what is written. While, therefore, the keri is made up of the consonants found on the margin, and of the vowels attached to the word in the text, the vowels belonging to the kethio must be supplied by the reader. For instance, in Judg. i. 27, the text has 30, but the margin gives the letters '\0'; the keri is, therefore, ', while the kethiv is vocalised 05.

2. The name of God 77177, deemed too sacred to be pronounced, is always provided with the vowels of 378, except that the has a simple instead of a compound sh’va, viz. 1717!, which is by Jews invariably spoken ådonay. It implies, therefore, in reality a combination of keri and kethiv. However, if preceded by 378, it is read Di78 and written with the vowels of this latter word, viz. 07177.

$ 15. OF THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN KAMETS

AND KAMETS CHATUPH. 1. It is an essential inconvenience, that the long a (kamets) and the short o (kamets chatuph) are represented by the same sign (1); but it cannot be difficult to distinguish between both in every individual case. Namely, the kamets is :

1. If it is accompanied by sh’va, since short vowels only form part of a compound sh’ya (8 4. 4), e.g. '73 tsori ; hence also

2. In the two words D'NTP and Diwani (k'ö-dashim, sho-rashim), because they were orginally written O'N WTW (see § 4. 4).

3. If it stands in an open syllable immediately before chatephkamets, because in the majority of such cases it was properly sh’va mobile, which has, however, been changed into a short vowel on account of the following compound sh’va (§ 4. 6.a,d; 11. 4.6); e.g. 1987% lo-cho-da-shav, for ons.

4. If it originally stood before chateph-kamets, which, by some change in the word, gave way to a full, vowel in a closed syllable, e.g. DIDNA mo-os'-chem, from 'Ono; 7?YP po-ol-cha, from sp; ogayn to-'ov-d'em, from ym.

5. If it stands in a syllable both closed and unaccentuated (see $ 11. 4. d), that is,

(a). In words which have the tone on the last syllable, before a sh’va quiescens; e.g. nmon toph-teh, nun mosh-ch'ath. But if the sh’va is mobile, the syllable is open and therefore long, and then - is. pronounced å, as is indicated by the metheg employed in such cases (§ 10. 3); e.g. ano ka-theou, nar, ya-shepheh. The same rules hold good if the syllables belong to different words connected by makkeph

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second syllable from the tone, because it may, in that place, accompany short as well as long syllables (§ 10. 1); k'or-banchem.

(6). In words with the tone on the penultima, in the last syllable, if closed, e.g. 33! van-na-s'ov.

(c). In a toneless syllable before dagesh forte, e.g. '97 ron-ne, be

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2. In all other cases - is the long kamets ; namely, in open syllables, whether they have the tone or not, have a quiescent letter or not; and in tone-syllables whether they be closed or followed by

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EXERCISE IX. Read the following words: 6 The tone is on the last syllable, except where otherwise marked.

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inrys, gayp, başq, napr, 1979, nian, man, b?p11

1007, , onip, 175, 1789, 71, DS) 12

$ 16. OF THE GUTTURALS. As the gutturals cause considerable deviations from the regular inflection of words, it seems desirable to give a systematic survey of their properties, though some peculiarities have already been noticed in earlier chapters.

1. The gutturals, a included, do not admit of re-duplication ($ 5.4); however, to compensate the syllable for the weight it loses by the omission of dagesh forte, the preceding vowel is usually changed into the corresponding or a cognate long one, namely,

(a). Pathach into kamets; e.g. yayn instead of 1977;

(6). Segol or chirek into tsere or long chirek; e.g. 17 instead of 7778, ; unha instead of writje; nyp instead of Yoja (see $ 5.2); and

(c.) Kibbuts into shurek or cholem; e.g. 779 instead of 779.

(d). Thus, also, the form 1717 is to be explained, which has the vowels of 'ynga (for 978-9), and is pronounced me-'ado-nay ($14. 2).

A compensation of this kind is the more necessary, as otherwise open syllables with short vowels would frequently be formed, as TYD, 787-X, which is against the laws of the tone (§ 11. 4. a,b).

2. But the dagesh in n and n is often omitted without any

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cases, described as having dagesh forte simplied” or “hidden," or dagesh forte implicitum or occultum.

3. Instead of shva mobile, the gutturals, 7 not included, take a compound sh’va (-:, ::, or -:, $ 4. 4). At the beginning of words, it 11, and y, have usually -:, e.g. Dm??, ?m, niwy; while & mostly takes ..., e.g. DX, though in longer words it has also -:, as DATOX.

Shiva quiescens, however, may stand under 17, y, and 17, and sometimes even under X, e.g. Don', nigra, 59, 778'; but it is frequently replaced by compound sh’va, e.g. 757, sam, wyr, bu , for 757, San', wyr, own

4. If two moveable sh’vas occur successively, whether at the beginning or in the middle of a word, and one of them is sh’va compositum, the first of the two is converted into the short vowel contained in the compound sh’va,, while the second sh’va remains; e.g. on, become on, 1957; and '981, , 289, are changed into 281, 3x5,; further 1799, 1979), 79, into 17299, 1979, 7P;

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5. If one of the gutturals 77, 7, y, stands at the end of a word after any long vowel except kamets, it is almost impossible not to sound before it a short auxiliary a, which is hence called furtive pathach or pathach furtivum; e.g. 27 hagʻ-bean', n'siuch', ni koach', y17 ruahh (8 3. 2); but nn is ch'ach', ma bah'.

6. As a rule, the gutturals show a tendency to be articulated with the sound a, to which they indeed bear a certain affinity of pronunciation ; for not only are the short vowels chirek and segol, if preceding a guttural, constantly changed into pathach, but sometimes the long vowels tsere and cholem undergo the same alteration, and then the pathach furtivum, of course, disappears; e.g. 2017' stands for 70n!,

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necessarily the case, as Syon, Syən, noNis; and the strong a especially retains, in most instances, its long vowels, as wn, DNIR.

8. In the first syllable, the vowel segol is often employed before or after a guttural, where chirek would stand in ordinary cases ; e.g.

ey, for my!, 'pyn for "p?n; the chirek, however, remains generally before dagesh forte, as piney, but bainoy; 111n, but film.

9. Gutturals provided with kamets frequently cause the pathach of the preceding syllable to be changed into segol; this is especially the case with 7, if containing dagesh forte implicitum, e.g. 27 (but

077), 1997. (for 99797), and, under the same condition, with 17 and Y, if these syllables have not the tone, e.g. 7777, 2 (for 9770,

ya), whereas if they have the tone, the pathach of the preceding syllable becomes kamets, e.g. 97, Sn; for in the second place from the tone, a shorter vowel is naturally preferred.—The syllable ♡ exercises but rarely an influence on the preceding vowel.

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