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II. Write the following words with the necessary methegs :

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§ 11. OF THE TONE. 1. Every word which is not followed by makkeph, is pronounced

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2. Words of two or more syllables, if not followed by makkeph, have the tone generally on the last, and sometimes on the second last syllable; in the former case, the word is said to have the accent milra

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3. No word can have the accent on the third syllable from the end.

4. (a). If an open syllable has the accent, it has very generally a long vowel; e.g.

owever, to facilitate the pronunciation of two successive consonants having each sh’va quiescens, new syllables are often formed by the introduction of an auxiliary vowel; and in such cases a short vowel may stand even in open and accentuated

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(6). If an open syllable is without accent, it has usually a long vowel;

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kamets chatuph before a compound sh’va, though short and unaccentuated, stand in open syllables, but are here supported by methegs

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(©). If a closed syllable, whether ending in one or two consonants, has the accent, it may have a long or a short vowel; e.g. DF

The TonE

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and 773.

(d). If a closed syllable is without accent, it has always a short vowel; e.g. 1979, nib, 1309, pot.

5. Two successive tone-syllables are never allowed in two words belonging to each other in sense, as the meeting of two such syllables is considered both inconvenient to the pronunciation, and harsh to the ear. Therefore, if the first word terminates in an open syllable, its

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not unfrequently joined by dagesh forte conjunctivum (8 5.6), as

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syllable, it is usually coupled with the next word by makkeph, and thus deprived of its accent, when, as a necessary consequence, any long vowel in the last syllable is, if possible, changed into the corresponding short one, since that syllable has become both closed and toneless (No. 4. d); e.g. 15-up? for 159 upa: "?opy forç hiy: (comp. § 17. i. 1).

In both cases, the desired result of avoiding two successive accents is sometimes attained by making the second word lose its tone, in connecting it with the following word; e.g. 7193-na nini? (Isaiah i. 8). This is necessarily done when the first word is a monosyllable ending in a vowel, and when therefore a retrocession of tone is impossible ; e.g. Danr37"? (Isa. i. 11). The monosyllabic particles ending in a vowel, are, however, generally joined to the following word by makkeph, as they have scarcely weight enough to stand alone and with a distinct accent; e.g. Jiu-xs; OR? (89).

Sh’va mobile is regarded as dividing two tone-syllables sufficiently; e.g. Dinn 18; 070 n po (Isa. i. 6, 8).

6. The particles ? and, in, a like, and $ to, are always inseparably connected with the following word, and are hence called prefixes or preformatives, as an Hebron,- 1am and Hebron, 117an in

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Now, if these lightest of all particles are immediately succeeded by a tone-syllable, they are considered to require a more sustained

& That is, connected by a conjunctive accent, see $ 12. 3, 18.

articulation, and are therefore, for greater support, provided with kamets; e.g. CR), 1991; 79, ; onio, pið?; , you

This change of sh’va into kamets is especially adopted if another tone-syllable precedes, or if the two words connected by the particles belong closely together, and are meant to form a single notion; e.g. DNI father and mother, parents, 71 1'? offspring and progeny, descendants, 7171717? to generation and generation, eternally. In such cases is employed even before labials, instead of 1 ($ 4. 6. c), e.g. ana, 7701 DID, MEI TAH; TOD.

$ 12. OF THE ACCENTS. 1. In addition to the signs hitherto explained, the received text of the Old Testament is furnished with accents, which, at first chiefly designed as notes for the song-like reading or cantillation of the Law and the Prophets in the Synagogues, serve also a twofold grammatical purpose: 1. They indicate, in every word, the syllable which has the tone;

and 2. They show the syntactical relation which each individual word

of the period bears to the rest.C In the poetical Books, they seem, besides, intended to mark the rhythmical structure of the periods, and the varied shades in the connection of their parts.

2. As regards the first point, the great usefulness of the accents is, in a certain degree, diminished by the circumstance, that some of themd are invariably placed on the first, otherse as regularly on the last letter of the word, independently of the tone-syllable. The one are called praepositivi, the others postpositivi. . . 3. In reference to the second point, it is obvious that there must- be two chief classes of accents, for, with respect to the sense, a word may either be separated from, or connected with, that which precedes or follows; hence the accents are divided into distinctive and conjunctive accents; the former correspond to our signs of punctuation, the latter have no equivalents in modern languages. In a completely furnished text, therefore, every word, unless followed by makkeph, has an accent.

* Comp. Gen. iv. 12; Exod. xiii. 29; c In which respect they are called Deut. ii. 10; 1 Sam. xviii. 16; 1 Ki. D'Oyo, guides for the sense. xviii. 4; Isa. xiv. 22; xxviii. 10; Psa. l d Yethiv and great telisha. i. 2, etc.

e Segolta, zarka, pashta, and small b Whence they are called nisip! or | telisha. ninys, musical notes.

See, however, infra No. 16.

4. Some accents stand above the consonant which bears the vowel of the syllable, others beneath it, and others again to the left of the vowel, whether it be preceded by sh’va mobile or not. In the first case, the accent is called upper accent or accentus supernus, in the two last, lower or accentus infernus.

5. The following is a list of the accents arranged according to their power and value, as they are used in the Old Testament, except the Books of Job, Proverbs, and Psalms. The praepositivi are printed in italics, the postpositivi with capitals.

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The Accents

B.--CONJUNCTIVE ACCENTS. 1. Munach (ngira, -), e.g. bis 87 (Gen. i. 1); 2. Mercha (8372, ),, e.g. bioana nx (Gen. i. 1); 3. Double mercha ( D7X379,-), e.g. 79333 (Lev. x. 1); 4. Mahpach (1978, ), e.g. Dan ia (Gen. i. 7); 5. Darga (8377, ), e.g. O'zby(Gen. i. 4); 6. Kadma (8972, -), e.g. 1978 (Lev. ix. 9); 7. Yerach (07,'-), e.g. 177 9 (Ps. lxxv. 9); xlvii. 9),

[xlvii.9); 8. Small T'elisha (75307 pmm, ), e.g. 1879 (Ezek. 9. Small Shalsheleth (noop n ie, -.), without pesik, e.g.

nizaina van! (Ps. x. 2). 6. The accents of the three poetical Books of Job, Proverbs, and Psalms, vary, in some respects, from those employed in the other parts of the Old Testament. Ten of the signs used in the latter, are not found in the former, others occur under different names, or possess a different value. The following eleven distinctive, and nine conjunctive accents are met with in the three Books.



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A.-DISTINCTIVE ACCENTS. I. 1. Silluk, followed by soph-pasuk (: -); 2. Mercha with mahpach (7972 1972, – or ,-), e.g. 38

(Ps. lxviii. 21), 7 (Ps. lxxv. 9). II. 3. TSINNOR (719y, i.e. 827), ), e.g. nyny (Ps. lxxvii. 3);

4. Great Reviah (117a va?, --), e.g. and (Job xxii. 1);

5. Athnach G). III, 6. Small Reviah (nap v'??, -), always followed by mercha

with mahpach, e.g. nivoj t'j (Ps.cxx. 1); [34); 7. Reviah with Geresh (pojma y'??,-), e.g. Don (Job xxxiv. 8. Shalsheleth, followed by legarmeh or pesik (1), comp. No. II.

a Viz., segolta, zakeph-katon, zakeph- ' b Viz., zarka, pesik, mahpach, and gadol, tevir, great telisha, double ge- | yerach. resh, karne-pharah, double mercha, | Where no examples are added, darga, and small telisha.

those given in the preceding list are | here also applicable.

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