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the later Books of the Old Testament, since the necessity of assisting the reader was in the course of time more strongly felt. The letters X, 1, and ', producing the scriptio plena, are with obvious appropriateness called guides for reading (matres lectionis).–At the end of words, the scriptio defectiva is not allowed, and it would, for instance, be inadmissible to write 7' for '?'W, 7' for 17'wi.

7. As quiescent letters naturally cause a more prolonged pronunciation of the preceding vowels, segol, when followed by a quiescent &,', or 17, takes the value , of a long vowel, though it is properly and commonly short, e.g. dece, 77, XI (Isa. xl. 4), 19.

8. As has been observed above, the three vowels kamets, chirek, and shurek, formed the basis of Hebrew vocalisation, and it appears that they were variously combined to produce the two other vowels, kamets and chirek amalgamating into tsere, and kamets and shurek into cholem.a Hence the following vowels are considered to be kindred to each other;

(a). Kamets, pathach, and segol.
(6). Chirek magnum, chirek parvum, tsere, and segol.
(c). Shurek, kibbuts, cholem, and kamets chatuph.

The vowels belonging to the same class may be interchanged under certain conditions, which later rules will specify; thus may, in some cases, be converted into 57, ng into nx, etc. (See § 17, ii. I, 3.)

EXERCISE IV. 6 The quiescent letters , 1, ', and 07, are to be expressed, respectively, by a small a, u, i and h, placed in parenthesis after the vowel; e.g. is to be written ba(a)-nu(u), ?ke-le(a), 1779 bi(i)-na(h), 177'¥. tse(i)-d'a(h). The long vowels may, besides, be marked by a small horizontal line (-), the short vowels by a semicircle o above them; e.g. 04 and D' are to be written yām and yam. The consonants are to be represented as stated in the note on p. 6.

I. Pronounce, and write in English letters, the following Hebrew words: „, , xix, in'?), H, 75, 77777', 17, 71, N, bir wap, 77, sin, gros, gej, by, 97, 9pi', ung, rmx 2. „8977, bmw, 199, dyi, 1787, bpk, yav, v7m, , SY 3.

Just as in French ai is pronounced like é, and au like o.

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if without a vowel, is always provided with sh’va, perhaps simply for calligraphical reasons, e.g. Ono s'år-těm, but 7? lēch.

3. It will readily be seen, that the sh’va has a twofold character according to its position at the beginning, or in the middle and at the end of syllables. For if, for instance, the pronunciation of 7? and 7 is compared, it is obvious, that while, in the first case, the 5 is unavoidably heard with a vowel almost similar to a short elèchā, the 7 in the second word lāch is merely a consonant articulated with the preceding vowel kamets. Nor is the sh’va sounded in the middle of a syllable, e.g. 77 is nėrd. Hence two kinds of sh’va are distinguished : 1. The moveable sh’va, or shva mobile, at the beginning of

syllables, and 2. The resting sh’va, or shva quiescens, in the middle and at

the end of syllables. 4. If sh’va mobile is spoken with one of the gutturals x, 7, 1, or y-letters of a peculiarly strong or harsh sound-it is necessarily articulated with greater distinctness and expanded into a short auxiliary vowel. The gutturals, therefore, never take a simple sh’va mobile, but adding to it either pathach, or segol, or kamets chatuph, form the combinations -:, :, and t, which are respectively called chateph-pathach, chateph-segol, and chateph-kamets, e.g. On Ch'anoch

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The first and the third of these signs occur sometimes under nongutturals also, e.g. Houin, 17897, nian, 249, 17277, 277YDI.

5. In order to decide whether a sh’va is mobile or quiescent, the following rules will suffice:

(a). At the beginning of a word, the sh’va is, of course, always mobile-'OP), 787

(6). At the end of a word, it is always quiescent; and if two sh’vas conclude the word, they are both quiescent, 72, 7?i.

(c). In the middle of a word, after a long vowel, it is in most cases mobile_D, ĐẠh, ĐĐ.

(d). After a short vowel, it is generally quiescent10, P7.

(e). Of two successive sh’vas in the middle of words, the first is quiescent, the second mobile-127?! yik'-révu (comp. $ 5. 8. d.)

(f). If, in a given word, sh’va precedes an aspirate (a, a, 7, 3, 5, ) provided with dagesh, it is quiescent, that is, it concludes the syllable, because the dagesh lene can stand only at the beginning of a new syllable ($ 2. 3.); e.g. map is not k'a-meti, but k'am-ti, since in the former case, the r could not have dagesh lene.-It is obvious that, in instances like these, the dagesh and the sh’va explain each other : the sh’va under the in map is quiescent, because the following aspirate has a dagesh lene; and then has a dagesh lene, because a has a sh’va quiescent; whereas the sh’va in words like 1279 is mobile, for if it were quiescent, the aspirate would require a dagesh lene.

6(a). Two sh’vas at the beginning of a word cannot be pronounced, since they would both be mobile, as in 2?. Therefore, in order to avoid two sh’vas in such a position, the first is changed into a short auxiliary vowel, usually chirek, or if one of the first two consonants is a guttural, into chateph-pathach, chateph-segol, os chateph-kamets ; e.g. 2? becomes 7035, nap?-nep}; while by? becomes by, 'AN- ID (see § 16. 4). .

(6). Of three sh’vas at the beginning of a word, the first remains, while the second and third are combined into a short syllable in the manner stated; e.g. nasos stands for mäso, 297?for win797.

(c). The particle and is changed into I before a labial, and before any non-guttural with sh’va, except ', with which it is combined into

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7773-773, 7pyyn- pyyn. If the first sh’va is quiescent and the second mobile, no alteration is necessary, as 1990., 747 (see No.5.e).

EXERCISE V. Which of the sh’vas occurring in the following words are mobile, and which quiescent? and for what reasons?

At The quantity of the doubtful vowels chirek and shurek, unless manifest from the nature of the words, is added in parenthesis, in order to facilitate the decision in cases embraced by 5 c, d.

1.11n: (); 2. 1779 (?); 3. 678?N?; 4. 47; 5. 9972; 6.00; 7.79%¥?; 8.7978; 9.pris! (t); 10. GMO!; 11. Dlkom (r); 12. Ox?; 13. 1 3; 14. 'NYT; 15.99; 16.7777; 17.17ppin; 18. an?! (0); 19.y?; 20. STO? (); 21.7778; 22. 799 ; 23. Omns; 24.987ayn; 25. ???; 26. jan. (c); 27. 187?(!); 28. max; 29. "ymp; 30.D'7; 31. 5779; 32. D'?por (ů); 33. 77İD; 34. myP; 35. D'opis; 36. 7??'; 37. lang; 38. pina); 39. "bpiya; 40. 18???; 41. Impin?; 42. D'BXBYO; 43. 797); 44. n37a; 45. m$7; 46. 79?!; 47.7937; 48. D'p?i'; 49.1992; 50. 1909. § 5. DAGESH FORTE, AND ITS DISTINCTION FROM

DAGESH LENE. 1. If in the same word the same consonant occurs twice successively after a short vowel, and in such.a connection that the first ought to have shva quiescens, the consonant is written only once, but furnished with a dot to indicate the reduplication. This dot is called strong dagesh, or dagesh forte ; 6.g. 1897. becomes 1%?? (Job xx. 10), '33 (Psa. ix. 14)—33m (iv. 2).

2. The same sign is used when one of the weaker letters, as the liquids ) or 7, provided with sh’va quiescens, is changed into the şucceeding consonant, or, as it is termed, is assimilated to it, e.g. 313-371-57; np5-n2p-np!; and in the same manner the 3 of the particle 19 from, of, is frequently assimilated to the first consonant of the following word, as yzo 19-y?p?. The dagesh is, in these cases, called dagesh forte compensativum or necessarium.

3. If the six aspirates (a, d, etc.) have dagesh forte, they lose the aspiration, and are pronounced hard, or as tenues, e.g. Dond (for Danne) is shi-ch'at-tem, D'EN — tup-pim. In such instances, the dagesh forte implies, therefore, the dagesh lene also.

4. The gutturals &, 17, n, y, and 7, do not take the dagesh forte, but the omission is generally compensated by some appropriate modification of the weakened syllable (see, however, No. 6; $ 16. 1, 2). , 5. Nor, is the dagesh forte ever written at the end of words; e.g.

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