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ed for a time, with a sort of exotic malady; every an excellent book, it is to me just as if I had gained day degenerated from themselves, and at last, in- a new friend. When I read over a book I have stead of rendering the country more polite, they perused before, it resembles the meeting with an conformed to the soil, and put on barbarity. old one. We ought to lay hold of every incident No, my friend, in order to make the sciences in life for improvement, the trifling as well as the useful in any country, it must first become popu- important. It is not one diamond alone which gives lous; the inhabitant must go through the different lustre to another; a common coarse stone is also stages of hunter, shepherd, and husbandman; then, employed for that purpose. Thus I ought to draw when property becomes valuable, and consequent- advantage from the insults and contempt I meet ly gives cause for injustice; then, when laws are with from a worthless fellow. His brutality ought appointed to repress injury, and secure possession; to induce me to self-examination, and correct every when men, by the sanction of those laws, become blemish that may have given rise to his calumny. possessed of superfluity; when luxury is thus in- "Yet with all the pleasures and profits which troduced, and demands its continual supply; then are generally produced by learning, parents often it is that the sciences become necessary and useful; find it difficult to induce their children to study. the state then can not subsist without them; they They often seem dragged to what wears the apmust then be introduced, at once to teach men to pearance of application. Thus, being dilatory in draw the greatest possible quantity of pleasure the beginning, all future hopes of eminence are from circumscribed possession, and to restrain entirely cut off. If they find themselves obliged them within the bounds of moderate enjoyment. to write two lines more polite than ordinary, their pencil then seems as heavy as a millstone, and they spend ten days in turning two or three periods with propriety.

The sciences are not the cause of luxury, but its consequence; and this destroyer thus brings with it an antidote which resists the virulence of its own poison. By asserting that luxury intro- "These persons are most at a loss when a banduces the sciences, we assert a truth; but if, with quet is almost over; the plate and the dice go round, those who reject the utility of learning, we assert that the sciences also introduce luxury, we shall be at once false, absurd, and ridiculous. Adieu.


From Lien Chi Altangi to Hingpo, by the way of Moscow.

that the number of little verses, which each is obliged to repeat, may be determined by chance. The booby, when it comes to his turn, appears quite stupid and insensible. The company divert themselves with his confusion; and sneers, winks and whispers, are circulated at his expense. As for him, he opens a pair of large heavy eyes, stares at all about him, and even offers to join in the laugh, without ever considering himself as the burden of all their good-humour.

"But it is of no importance to read much, except you be regular in your reading. If it be interrupted

You are now arrived at an age, my son, when pleasure dissuades from application; but rob not, by present gratification, all the succeeding period of life of its happiness. Sacrifice a little pleasure for any considerable time, it can never be attended at first to the expectance of greater. The study of a few years will make the rest of life completely easy.

with proper improvement. There are some who study for one day with intense application, and repose themselves for ten days after. But wisdom is a coquette, and must be courted with unabating assiduity.

But instead of continuing the subject myself, take the following instructions, borrowed from a modern philosopher of China. "He who has be- "It was a saying of the ancients, that a man gun his fortune by study, will certainly confirm it never opens a book without reaping some advantage by perseverance. The love of books damps the by it. I say with them, that every book can serve passion for pleasure; and when this passion is once to make us more expert, except romances, and extinguished, life is then cheaply supported: thus these are no better than instruments of debauchery. a man, being possessed of more than he wants, can They are dangerous fictions, where love is the never be subject to great disappointments, and ruling passion. avoids all those meannesses which indigence sometimes unavoidably produces.

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"The most indecent strokes there pass for turns of wit; intrigue and criminal liberties for gallantry and politeness. Assignations, and even villany, are put in such strong lights, as may inspire even grown men with the strongest passion; how much more, therefore, ought the youth of either sex to dread them, whose reason is so weak, and whose hearts are so susceptible of passion.

"To slip in bv a back door, or leap a wall, are

accomplishments that, when handsomely set off, a tea-cup;-such is his character, which, considerenchant a young heart. It is true, the plot is com- ed in every light, is the very opposite of that which monly wound up by a marriage concluded with leads to riches. the consent of parents, and adjusted by every cere- The poets of the West are as remarkable for mony prescribed by law. But as in the body of their indigence as their genius, and yet, among the the work there are many passages that offend good numerous hospitals designed to relieve the poor, I morals, overthrow laudable customs, violate the have heard of but one erected for the benefit of delaws, and destroy the duties most essential to so- cayed authors. This was founded by Pope Urban ciety, virtue is thereby exposed to the most danger- VIII., and called the retreat of the incurables, inous attacks. timating, that it was equally impossible to reclaim "But, say some, the authors of these romances the patients, who sued for reception, from poverty have nothing in view, but to represent vice punish- or from poetry. To be sincere, were I to send you ed, and virtue rewarded. Granted. But will the an account of the lives of the western poets, either greater number of readers take notice of these ancient or modern, I fancy you would think me punishments and rewards? Are not their minds employed in collecting materials for a history of carried to something else? Can it be imagined human wretchedness. that the art with which the author inspires the Homer is the first poet and beggar of note among love of virtue, can overcome that crowd of thoughts the ancients; he was blind, and sung his ballads which sway them to licentiousness? To be able about the streets; but it is observed that his mouth to inculcate virtue by so leaky a vehicle, the author was more frequently filled with verses than with must be a philosopher of the first rank. But in bread. Plautus, the comic poet, was better off-he our age, we can find but few first-rate philoso- had two trades, he was a poet for his diversion, and phers. helped to turn a mill in order to gain a livelihood. "Avoid such performances where vice assumes Terence was a slave; and Boethius died in a gaol. the face of virtue: seek wisdom and knowledge, | Among the Italians, Paulo Borghese, almost as without ever thinking you have found them. A good a poet as Tasso, knew fourteen different man is wise, while he continues in the pursuit of trades, and yet died because he could get employwisdom; but when he once fancies that he has ment in none. Tasso himself, who had the most found the object of his inquiry, he then becomes a amiable character of all poets, has often been obliged fool. Learn to pursue virtue from the man that is to borrow a crown from some friend, in order to blind, who never makes a step without first ex- pay for a month's subsistence; he has left us a amining the ground with his staff. pretty sonnet, addressed to his cat, in which he "The world is like a vast sea; mankind like a begs the light of her eyes to write by, being too poor vessel sailing on its tempestuous bosom. Our to afford himself a candle. But Bentivoglio, poor prudence is its sails, the sciences serve us for oars, Bentivoglio! chiefly demands our pity. His comegood or bad fortune are the favourable or contrary dies will last with the Italian language: he dissiwinds, and judgment is the rudder; without this pated a noble fortune in acts of charity and benevolast, the vessel is tossed by every billow, and will lence; but, falling into misery in his old age, was find shipwreck in every breeze. In a word, ob- refused to be admitted into an hospital which he scurity and indigence are the parents of vigilance himself had erected. and economy; vigilance and economy, of riches and honour; riches and honour, of pride and luxury; pride and luxury, of impurity and idleness; and impurity and idleness again produce indigence and obscurity. Such are the revolutions of life." Adieu.


In Spain, it is said, the great Cervantes died of hunger; and it is certain, that the famous Camoens ended his days in an hospital.

If we turn to France, we shall there find even stronger instances of the ingratitude of the public. Vaugelas, one of the politest writers, and one of the honestest men of his time, was surnamed the Owl, from his being obliged to keep within all day, and venture out only by night, through fear of his creditors. His last will is very remarkable. After having bequeathed all his worldly substance to the discharging his debts, he goes on thus: "But, as there still may remain some creditors unpaid, even I FANCY the character of a poet is in every coun- after all that I have shall be disposed of, in such a try the same: fond of enjoying the present, care-case it is my last will, that my body should be sold less of the future, his conversation that of a man of to the surgeons to the best advantage, and that the sense, his actions those of a fool; of fortitude able purchase should go to the discharging those debts to stand unmoved at the bursting of an earthquake, which I owe to society; so that if I could not, while yet of sensibility to be affected by the breaking of living, at least when dead, I may be useful."

From Lien Chi Altangi, to Fum Hoam, First President of the Ceremonial Academy at Pekin, in China.


From the Same.

Cassander was one of the greatest geniuses of his time, yet all his merit could not procure him a bare subsistence. Being by degrees driven into a hatred of all mankind, from the little pity he found amongst them, he even ventured at last ungrate- I HAVE interested myself so long in all the confully to impute his calamities to Providence. In cerns of this people, that I am almost become an his last agonies, when the priest entreated him to Englishman; I now begin to read with pleasure of rely on the justice of Heaven, and ask mercy from their taking towns or gaining battles, and secretly him that made him-"If God," replies he, "has wish disappointment to all the enemies of Britain. shown me no justice here, what reason have I to ex-Yet still my regard to mankind fills me with conpect any from him hereafter?" But being answer-cern for their contentions. I could wish to see the ed, that a suspension of justice was no argument disturbances of Europe once more amicably adjustthat should induce us to doubt of its reality-"Let ed: I am an enemy to nothing in this good world me entreat you," continued his confessor, "by all but war; I hate fighting between rival states: I hate that is dear, to be reconciled to God, your father, it between man and man; I hate fighting even beyour maker, and friend."-"No," replied the ex-tween women!

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asperated wretch, "you know the manner in which I already informed you, that while Europe was he left me to live; and (pointing to the straw on at variance, we were also threatened from the stage which he was stretched) you see the manner in with an irreconcileable opposition, and that our which he leaves me to die!"

But the sufferings of the poet in other countries is nothing, when compared to his distresses here; the names of Spenser and Otway, Butler and Dryden, are every day mentioned as a national reproach: some of them lived in a state of precarious indigence, and others literally died of hunger.

singing women were resolved to sing at each other to the end of the season. O my friend, those fears were just! They are not only determined to sing at each other to the end of the season, but what is worse, to sing the same song; and what is still more insupportable, to make us pay for hearing.

If they be for war, for my part, I should advise At present, the few poets of England no longer them to have a public congress, and there fairly depend on the great for subsistence; they have now squall at each other. What signifies sounding the no other patrons but the public, and the public, col- trumpet of defiance at a distance, and calling in the lectively considered, is a good and a generous mas-town to fight their battles? I would have them come ter. It is, indeed, too frequently mistaken as to boldly into one of the most open and frequented the merits of every candidate for favour; but, to streets, face to face, and there try their skill in make amends, it is never mistaken long. A per- quavering. formance indeed may be forced for a time into re- However this may be, resolved I am that they putation, but destitute of real merit, it soon sinks; shall not touch one single piece of silver more of time, the touchstone of what is truly valuable, will mine. Though I have ears for music, thanks be to soon discover the fraud, and an author should never Heaven, they are not altogether ass's ears. What! arrogate to himself any share of success, till his Polly and the Pickpocket to night, Polly and the works have been read at least ten years with satis-Pickpocket to-morrow night, and Polly and the Pickfaction. pocket again! I want patience. I'll hear no more. My

A man of letters at present, whose works are soul is out of tune; all jarring discord and confuvaluable, is perfectly sensible of their value. Every sion. Rest, rest, ye dear three clinking shillings polite member of the community, by buying what in my pocket's bottom: the music you make is more he writes, contributes to reward him. The ridicule, harmonious to my spirit than catgut, rosin, or all therefore, of living in a garret, might have been wit the nightingales that ever chirruped in petticoats. in the last age, but continues such no longer, because But what raises my indignation to the greatest no longer true. A writer of real merit now may degree is, that this piping does not only pester me easily be rich, if his heart be set only on fortune; on the stage, but is my punishment in private conand for those who have no merit, it is but fit that versation. What is it to me, whether the fine pipe such should remain in merited obscurity. He may of the one, or the great manner of the other, be now refuse an invitation to dinner, without fearing preferable? what care I if one has a better top, or to incur his patron's displeasure, or to starve by re- the other a nobler bottom? how am I concerned if maining at home. He may now venture to appear one sings from the stomach, or the other sings with in company with just such clothes as other men a snap? Yet paltry as these matters are, they make generally wear, and talk even to princes with all the a subject of debate wherever I go; and this musical conscious superiority of wisdom. Though he can dispute, especially among the fair sex, almost alnot boast of fortune here, yet he can bravely assert ways ends in a very unmusical altercation. the dignity of independence. Adieu Sure the spirit of contention is mixed with the

very constitution of the people! divisions among of Chinese ceremonies to no purpose. I know the the inhabitants of other countries arise only from proper share of respect due to every rank in sotheir higher concerns, but subjects the most con- ciety. Stage-players, fire-eaters, singing women, temptible are made an affair of party here; the dancing dogs, wild beasts, and wire-walkers, as spirit is carried even into their amusements. The their efforts are exerted for our amusement, ought very ladies, whose duty should seem to allay the not entirely to be despised. The laws of every impetuosity of the opposite sex, become themselves country should allow them to play their tricks at party champions, engage in the thickest of the fight, least with impunity. They should not be branded scold at each other, and show their courage, even with the ignominious appellation of vagabonds; at at the expense of their lovers and their beauty. least they deserve a rank in society equal to the There are even a numerous set of poets who mystery of barbers or undertakers, and, could my help to keep up the contention, and write for the influence extend so far, they should be allowed to stage. Mistake me not, I do not mean pieces to earn even forty or fifty pounds a-year, if eminent in be acted upon it, but panegyrical verses on the per- their profession. formers, for that is the most universal method of I am sensible, however, that you will censure writing for the stage at present. It is the business me for profusion in this respect, bred up as you are of the stage-poet, therefore, to watch the appearance in the narrow prejudices of eastern frugality. You of every new player at his own house, and so come will undoubtedly assert, that such a stipend is too out next day with a flaunting copy of newspaper great for so useless an employment. Yet how verses. In these, nature and the actor may be set will your surprise increase, when told, that though to run races, the player always coming off victori the law holds them as vagabonds, many of them ous; or nature may mistake him for herself; or old earn more than a thousand a-year! You are Shakspeare may put on his winding-sheet, and pay amazed. There is cause for amazement. A vagahim a visit; or the tuneful nine may strike up their bond with a thousand a-year is indeed a curiosity harps in his praise; or, should it happen to be an in nature; a wonder far surpassing the flying fish, actress, Venus, the beauteous queen of love, and petrified crab, or travelling lobster. However, from the naked Graces, are ever in waiting: the lady my great love to the profession, I would willingly must be herself a goddess bred and born; she must-have them divested of part of their contempt, and But you shall have a specimen of one of these poems, which may convey a more precise idea.


OF ****.

To you, bright fair, the nine address their lays,
And tune my feeble voice to sing thy praise.
The heart-felt power of every charm divine,
Who can withstand their all-commanding shine?
See how she moves along with every grace,

While soul-brought tears steal down each shining face!
She speaks; 'tis rapture all and nameless bliss,
Ye gods! what transport e'er compared to this?
As when in Paphian groves the queen of love,
With fond complaint, address'd the listening Jove,
"Twas joy, and endless blisses, all around,
And rocks forgot their hardness at the sound.
Then first, at last even Jove was taken in,
And felt her charms, without disguise within.

part of their finery; the law should kindly take them under the wing of protection, fix them into a corporation, like that of the barbers, and abridge their ignominy and their pensions. As to their abilities in other respects, I would leave that entirely to the public, who are certainly in this case the properest judges,-whether they despise them

or not.

Yes, my Fum, I would abridge their pensions. A theatrical warrior, who conducts the battles of the stage, should be cooped up with the same caution as a bantam cock that is kept for fighting. When one of those animals is taken from its native dunghill, we retrench it both in the quantity of its food, and the number of its seraglio: players should in the same manner be fed, not fattened; they should be permitted to get their bread, but not eat the people's bread into the bargain; and, instead of being permitted to keep four mistresses, in conscience, they should be contented only with two.

Were stage-players thus brought into bounds, perhaps we should find their admirers less sanguine, and consequently less ridiculous, in patronizing them. We should be no longer struck with the

And yet think not, my friend, that I have any particular animosity against the champions who are at the head of the present commotion; on the contrary, I could find pleasure in their music, if served up at proper intervals; if I heard it only on proper occasions, and not about it wherever I go. In fact, I could patronize them both; and, as an instance of my condescension in this particular, they may come and give me a song at my lodgings, absurdity of seeing the same people, whose valour on any evening when I am at leisure, provided they keep a becoming distance, and stand, while they continue to entertain me, with decent humility, at the door.

makes such a figure abroad, apostrophizing in the praise of a bouncing blockhead, and wrangling in the defence of a copper-tailed actress at home.

I shall conclude my letter with the sensible adYou perceive I have not read the seventeen books monition of Mé the philosopher. "You love har

mony," says he, "and are charmed with music. If Whether this contention between three carts of do not blame you for hearing a fine voice, when different parishes was promoted by a subscription you are in your closet, with a lovely parterre under among the nobility, or whether the grand jury, in your eye, or in the night-time, while perhaps the council assembled, had gloriously combined to enmoon diffuses her silver rays. But is a man to car-courage plaustral merit, I can not take upon me to ry this passion so far as to let a company of come- determine; but certain it is, the whole was condians, musicians, and singers, grow rich upon his ducted with the utmost regularity and decorum, exhausted fortune? If so, he resembles one of those dead bodies, whose brains the embalmer has picked out through the ears." Adieu.


From the Same.

Of all the places of amusement where gentlemen and ladies are entertained, I have not been yet to visit Newmarket. This, I am told, is a large field, where, upon certain occasions, three or four horses are brought together, then set a-running, and that horse which runs swiftest wins the wager.

and the company, which made a brilliant appear ance, were universally of opinion, that the sport was high, the running fine, and the riders influenced by no bribe.

It was run on the road from London to a village called Brentford, between a turnip-cart, a dust-cart, and a dung-cart; each of the owners condescending to mount, and be his own driver. The odds, at starting, were Dust against Dung, five to four; but after half a mile's going, the knowing ones found themselves all on the wrong side, and it was Turnip against the field, brass to silver.

Soon, however, the contest became more doubtful; Turnip indeed kept the way, but it was perThis is reckoned a very polite and fashionable ceived that Dung had better bottom. The road amusement here, much more followed by the no- re-echoed with the shouts of the spectators-" Dung bility than partridge fighting at Java, or paper against Turnip! Turnip against Dung!" was now kites in Madagascar; several of the great here, I the universal cry; neck and neck; one rode lighter, am told, understand as much of farriery as their but the other had more judgment. I could not but grooms; and a horse, with any share of merit, can never want a patron among the nobility.

particularly observe the ardour with which the fair sex espoused the cause of the different riders on We have a description of this entertainment al- this occasion; one was charmed with the unwashmost every day in some of the gazettes, as for in- ed beauties of Dung; another was captivated with stance: "On such a day, the Give and Take the patibulary aspect of Turnip; while in the mean Plate was run for between his Grace's Crab, his time, unfortunate gloomy Dust, who came whipping Lordship's Periwinkle, and 'Squire Smackem's behind, was cheered by the encouragement of some, Slamerkin. All rode their own horses. There and pity of all. was the greatest concourse of nobility that has been The contention now continued for some time, known here for several seasons. The odds were in without a possibility of determining to whom vicfavour of Crab in the beginning; but Slamerkin, tory designed the prize. The winning post apafter the first heat, seemed to have the match hol-peared in view, and he who drove the turnip-cart low; however, it was soon seen that Periwinkle assured himself of success; and successful he might improved in wind, which at last turned out ac- have been, had his horse been as ambitious as he; cordingly; Crab was run to a stand-still, Slamer- but upon approaching a turn from the road, which kin was knocked up, and Periwinkle was brought led homewards, the horse fairly stood still, and rein with universal applause." Thus, you see, Periwinkle received universal applause, and, no doubt, his lordship came in for some share of that praise which was so liberally bestowed upon Periwinkle. Sun of China! how glorious must the senator appear in his cap and leather breeches, his whip crossed in his mouth, and thus coming to the goal, amongst the shouts of grooms, jockeys, pimps, stable-bred dukes, and degraded generals!

fused to move a foot farther. The dung-cart had scarcely time to enjoy this temporary triumph, when it was pitched headlong into a ditch by the wayside, and the rider left to wallow in congenial mud. Dust, in the mean time, soon came up, and not being far from the post, came in, amidst the shouts and acclamations of all the spectators, and greatly caressed by all the quality of Brentford. Fortune was kind only to one, who ought to have From the description of this princely amusement, been favourable to all; each had peculiar merit, now transcribed, and from the great veneration 1 each laboured hard to earn the prize, and each richhave for the characters of its principal promoters, 1 ly deserved the cart he drove. make no doubt but I shall look upon a horse-race I do not know whether this description may not with becoming reverence, predisposed as I am by a have anticipated that which I intended giving of similar amusement, of which I have lately been a Newmarket. I am told, there is little else to be spectator; for just now I happened to have an op- seen even there. There may be some minute difportunity of being present at a cart-race. ferences in the dress of the spectators, but none at

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