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knows.' 1 And he says that nothing comes into being, nor is anything destroyed, nor moved; and that the universe is one and is not subject to change. And he says that god is eternal and one, homogeneous throughout, limited, spherical, with power of senseperception in all parts. The sun is formed each day from small fiery particles which are gathered together ; the earth is infinite, and is not surrounded by air or by sky; an infinite number of suns and moons exist, and all things come from earth. The sea, he said, is salt because so many things flow together and become mixed in it; but Metrodoros assigns as the reason for its saltness that it has filtered through the earth. And Xenophanes believes that once the earth was mingled with the sea, but in the course of time it became freed from moisture ; and his proofs are such as these : that shells are found in the midst of the land and among the mountains, that in the quarries of Syracuse the imprints of a fish and of seals had been found, and in Paros the imprint of an anchovy at some depth in the stone, and in Melite shallow impressions of all sorts of sea products. He says that these imprints were made when everything long ago was covered with mud, and then the imprint dried in the mud. Farther he says that all men will be destroyed when the earth sinks into the sea and becomes mud, and that the race will begin anew from the beginning; and this transformation takes place for all worlds.
Plut. Strom. 4; Dox. 580. Xenophanes of Kolophon, going his own way and differing from all those that had gone before, did not admit either genesis or destruction, but says that the all is always the same. For if it came into being, it could not have existed before this; and not-being could not come into existence
nor could it accomplish anything, nor could anything come from not-being. And he declares that sensations are deceptive, and together with them he does away with the authority of reason itself. And he declares that the earth is constantly sinking little by little into the sea. He says that the sun is composed of numerous fiery particles massed together. And with regard to the gods he declares that there is no rule of one god over another, for it is impious that any of the gods should be ruled ; and none of the gods have need of anything at all, for a god hears and sees in all his parts and not in some particular organs. He declares that the earth is infinite and is not surrounded on every side by air; and all things arise from earth; and he says that the sun and the stars arise from clouds.
Galen, Hist. Phil. 3; Dox. 601. Xenophanes of Kolophon is said to be the chief of this school, which is ordinarily considered aporetic (skeptical) rather than dogmatic. 7; Dox. 604. To the class holding eclectic views belongs Xenophanes, who has his doubts as to all things, except that he holds this one dogma : that all things are one, and that this is god, who is limited, endowed with reason, and immovable.
Aet. Plac. i. 3; Dox. 284. Xenophanes held that the first principle of all things is earth, for he wrote in his book on nature: *All things come from earth, and all things end by becoming earth.”?
Aet. ii. 4; Dox. 332. Xenophanes et al.: The world is without beginning, eternal, imperishable. 13 ; 343. The stars are formed of burning cloud ; these are extinguished each day, but they are kindled again at night, like coals; for their risings and settings are
Zeller, Vorsokr. Phil. p. 526, n. 4; Arch. f. d. Gesch. d. Phil. ii. 1899, pp. 1-5.
2 Epiph. adv. Haer. iii. 9; Dox. 590.
really kindlings and extinguishings. 18; 347. The objects which appear to those on vessels like stars, and which some call Dioscuri, are little clouds which have become luminous by a certain kind of motion. 20; 548. The sun is composed of fiery particles collected from the moist exhalation and massed together, or of burning clouds. 24; 354. Eclipses occur by extinction of the sun; and the sun is born anew at its risings. Xenophanes recorded an eclipse of the sun for a whole month, and another eclipse so complete that the day seemed as night. 24; 355. Xenophanes held that there are many suns and moons according to the different regions and sections and zones of the earth; and that at some fitting time the disk of the sun comes into a region of the earth not inhabited by us, and so it suffers eclipse as though it had gone into a hole ; he adds that the sun goes on for an infinite distance, but it seems to turn around by reason of the great distance. 25 ; 356. The moon is a compressed cloud. 28; 358. It shines by its own light. 29 ; 360. The moon disappears each month because it is extinguished. 30; 362. The sun serves a purpose in the generation of the world and of the animals on it, as well as in sustaining them, and it drags the moon after it.
Aet. iii. 2 ; 367. Comets are groups or motions of burning clouds. 3; 368. Lightnings take place when clouds shine in motion. 4; 371. The phenomena of the heavens come from the warmth of the sun as the principal cause. For when the moisture is drawn up from the sea, the sweet water separated by reason of its lightness becomes mist and passes into clouds, and falls as rain when compressed, and the winds scatter it; for he writes expressly (Frag. 11): The sea is the source of water.'
Aet. iv. 9; 396. Sensations are deceptive.
Aet. v. 1; 415. Xenophanes and Epikouros abolished the propbetic art.
THE ELEATIC SCHOOL: PARMENIDES.
PARMENIDES, the son of Pyres (or Pyrrhee), of Elea, was born about 515 B.C. ; his family was of noble rank and rich, but Parmenides devoted himself to philosophy. He was associated with members of the Pythagorean society, and is himself called a Pythagorean by later writers. In the formation of his philosophic system however he was most influenced by his aged fellow-townsman, Xenophanes; the doctrines of Xenophanes he developed into a system which was embodied in a poetic work ‘On Nature.' The statement that he made laws for the citizens may have reference to some connection with the Pythagorean society.
Literature : The fragments of Parmenides have been
collected by Peyron, Leipzig 1810; Karsten, Amsterdam 1830; Brandis, Comm. Eleat. Altona 1813; Vatke, Berlin 1864; Stein, Symb. philol. Bonn. Leipzig 1867; V. Revue Phil. 1883, 5: 1884, 9. Berger, Die Zonenlehre d. Parm. München, 1895.
(a) FRAGMENTS OF PARMENIDES. "Ιπποι ται με φέρουσιν, όσον το επιθυμος ικάνοι, πέμπον, επεί μ' ές οδόν βησαν πολύφημον άγουσαι δαίμονος και κατά πάντ' αυτή φέρει ειδότα φώτα.
τη φερόμην· τη γάρ με πολύφραστοι φέρον ίπποι 5 άρμα τιταίνουσαι κουραι δ' οδόν ηγεμόνευον.
άξων δ' εν χνοιήσιν « ίει> σύριγγος αυτήν
αιθόμενος (δοιούς γάρ επείγετο δινωτοίσιν
Sources and Critical Notes. 1-30. (Followed without break by 53–58) Sext. Emp. Math. vii. 111. Cf. Porphyrius, de antro nymph. ch. 22. 28–32. Simpl. de coelo 557, 25. 28-30. Laer. Diog. ix. 22. 29-30. Plut. adv. Colot. 1114 D. Prokl. Tim. p. 105 B; Clem. Al. Strom. v. p. 682.
Vv. 6–8 Karsten transfers to a position after v. 10 (order : 5, 9, 10, 6, 7, 8, 11), comma at end of v. 5 and period at end of v. 8. Stein transfers vv. 4-8 to a position after v. 21, and changes dainovos of v. 3 to da'uoves in apposition with 'Haládes koupal. Order : 3, 9, 10 ... 20, 21, 4, 5 ... 7, 8, where a break occurs, and v. 22 begins a new section.
V. 2: SV noav. V. 3: MSS. mávta an pépes, Karst. mávt' ådan
φ., Hermann και πάντ' αυτή, Stein πάντα μάθη. Diels compares
(Prooemium) The horses which bear me conducted me as far as desire may go, when they had brought me speeding along to the far-famed road
of a divinity who herself bears onward through all 5 things the man of understanding. Along this road
I was borne, along this the horses, wise indeed, bore me hastening the chariot on, and maidens guided my course. The axle in its box, enkindled by the heat, uttered the sound of a pipe (for it was driven on by the rolling wheels on either side), when the maiden daughters of Helios hastened to conduct me