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brightly, for it moves in purer aether [äijp, and the moon moves in thicker aether and so it shines more dimly. 29; Doz. 359. Eclipses of the moon are occasioned by the turning of the bowl-shaped body. 32; Dow. 364. The great year consists of eighteen thousand sun-years. According to Diogenes and Herakleitos the year consists of three hundred and sixty-five days. Aet. iii. 3; Dor. 369. Thunder is occasioned by a gathering of winds and clouds, and the impact of gusts of wind on the clouds; and lightning by a kindling of the exhalations; and fiery whirlwinds [Tpmothpas] by a burning and a quenching of the clouds. Aet. iv. 3; Dow. 338. Parmenides and Hippasos and Herakleitos call the soul a fiery substance. 7; Doz. 392. H. says that souls set free from the body go into the soul of the all, inasmuch as it is akin to them in nature and essence. Aet. v. 23; Doc. 434. Herakleitos and the Stoics say that men come to maturity at about fourteen years, with the beginning of sexual life; for trees come to maturity when they begin to bear fruit. . . And at about the age of fourteen men gain understanding of good and evil, and of instruction as to these matters.


XENOPHANES of Kolophon, son of Dexias (Apollodoros says of Orthomenes), was the founder of the Eleatic School. After a careful review of the evidence, Zeller (Vorsokr. Phil. pp. 521-522) concludes that he was born about 580 B.C.; it is agreed by all writers that he lived to a great age. The stories of his travels and adventures are very numerous. He speaks of the war between the Ionic colonies and the Persians as beginning in his youth. According to Diogenes he sang the founding of Elea in 2,000 hexameter verses. The reference to him by Herakleitos (Fr. 16) indicates the general respect for his philosophy. He composed poetry of all varieties, and is said to have recited his own poems. His philosophic views were embodied in a poem which was early lost, and to which later ages gave the name ‘Tspi (pia’sos.’

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* The text follows in the main the edition of Bergk-Hiller, Poet. Lyr. Graec., Leipzig, 1890.


1. God is one, supreme among gods and men, and to not like mortals in body or in mind."

2. The whole [of god] sees, the whole perceives, the, whole hears.”

3. But without effort he sets in motion all things by , mind and thought.

4. It [i.e. being] always abides in the same place, not moved at all, nor is it fitting that it should move from one place to another.


5. But mortals suppose that the gods are born (as they themselves are), and that they wear man's clothing and have human voice and body.”

6. But if cattle or lions had hands, so as to paint with their hands and produce works of art as men do, they would paint their gods and give them bodies in form like their own—horses like horses, cattle like cattle."

Zeller, Vorsokratische Philosophie, p. 530, n. 3. * Zeller, 526, n. 1. No author is given in the context; Karsten follows Fabricius in accrediting it to Xenophanes. * Zeller, 524, n. 2. Cf. Arist. Rhet. ii. 23; 1399 b 6. * Zeller, 525, n. 2. Diog. Laer, iii. 16; Cic. de mat. Deor. i. 27.

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