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hands or in the tongue; and the same is true of the

other powers.

Theophr. de sens. 59; Dox. 516. And Empedokles says of colours that white is due to fire, and black to water.

Cic. De nat. deor. xii.; Dox. 535. Empedokles, along with many other mistakes, makes his worst error in his conception of the gods. For the four beings of which he holds that all things consist, he considers divine; but it is clear that these are born and die and are devoid of all sense.

Hipp. Phil. 3; Dox. 558. And Empedokles, who lived later, said much concerning the nature of the divinities, how they live in great numbers beneath the earth and manage things there. He said that Love and Strife were the first principle of the all, and that the intelligent fire of the monad is god, and that all things are formed from fire and are resolved into fire; and the Stoics agree closely with his teaching, in that they expect a general conflagration. And he believed most fully in transmigration, for he said : For in truth I was born a boy and a maiden, and a plant and a bird, and a fish whose course lies in the sea.' He said that all souls went at death into all sorts of animals.

Hipp. Phil. 4; Dox: 559. See Herakleitos, p. 64.

Plut. Strom. 10; Dox, 582. Empedokles of Agrigentum : The elements are four--fire, water, aether, earth. And the cause of these is Love and Strife, From the first mixture of the elements he says that the air was separated and poured around in a circle; and after the air the fire ran off, and not having any other place to go to, it ran up from under the ioe that was around the air. And there are two hemispheres moving in a circle around the earth, the one of pure fire, the other of air and a little fire mixed, which he thinks is night. And motion

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began as a result of the weight of the fire when it was collected. And the sun is not fire in its nature, but a reflection of fire, like that which takes place in water. And he says the moon consists of air that has been shut up by fire, for this becomes solid like hail; and its light it gets from the sun. The ruling part is not in the head or in the breast, but in the blood; wherefore in whatever part of the body the more of this is spread, in that part men excel.

Epiph. adv. Haer. iii. 19; Dox. 591. Empedokles of Agrigentum, son of Meton, regarded fire and earth and water and air as the four first elements, and he said that enmity is the first of the elements. For, he says, they were separated at first, but now they are united into one, becoming loved by each other. So in his view the first principles and powers are two, Enmity and Love, of which the one tends to bring things together and the other to separate them.

233

XI.

ANAXAGORAS.

ANAXAGORAS of Klazomenae, son of Hegesiboulos, was born in the seventieth Olympiad (500–497) and died in the first year of the eighty-eighth Olympiad (428), according to the chronicles of Apollodoros. It is said that he neglected his possessions in his pursuit of philosophy; he began to teach philosophy in the archonship of Kallias at Athens (480). The fall of a meteoric. stone at Aegos Potamoi (467 or 469) influenced profoundly his views of the heavenly bodies. Perikles brought him to Athens, and tradition says he remained there thirty years. His exile (434–432) was brought about by the enemies of Perikles, and he died at Lampsakos. He wrote but one book, according to Diogenes, and the same authority says this was written in a pleasing and lofty style.

Literature :-Schaubach, Anax. Claz. Frag. Lips.

1827 ; W. Schorn, Anax. Claz. et Diog. Apoll. Frag. Bonn 1829; Panzerbieter, De frag. Anax. ord. Meining. 1836; Fr. Breier, Die Philosophie des Anax. nach Arist. Berl. 1840. Cf. Diels, Hermes xiii. 4.

FRAGMENTS OF ANAXAGORAS. 1. ομού χρήματα πάντα ήν άπειρα και πλήθος και σμικρότητα και γάρ το σμικρόν άπειρον ήν. και πάντων ομού εόντων ουδέν ένδηλον ήν υπό σμικρότητος· πάντα γάρ αήρ τε και αιθήρ κατείχεν αμφότερα άπειρα έoντα: ταύτα γαρ μέγιστα ένεστιν εν τοις σύμπασι και πλήθει και μεγέθει.

2. και γαρ αήρ τε και αιθήρ αποκρίνονται από του πολλού του περιέχοντος. και το γε περιέχον άπειρόν έστι το πλήθος.

4. πρίν δε αποκριθήναι ... πάντων ομού εόντων ουδε χρoιή ένδηλος ήν ουδεμία απεκώλυε γάρ ή σύμμιξις πάντων χρημάτων του τε διερού και του ξηρού και του θερμού και του ψυχρού και του λαμπρού και του ζοφερού και γης πολλής ενεούσης και σπερμάτων απείρων πλήθους ουδέν έoικότων αλλήλοις. ουδέ γάρ των άλλων ουδέν έoικε το έτερον τώ ετέρω.

3. τούτων δε ούτως εχόντων, χρή δοκείν ενείναι πολλά τε και παντοία εν πάσι τοίς συγκρινομένοις και σπέρματα πάντων χρημάτων και ιδέας παντοίας έχοντα και χροιάς και ηδονάς.

Sources and Critical Notes. 1. Simpl. Phys. 33 v 155, 26. (First clause 8 r 34, 20, and 37 r 172, 2.)

34, 20 and 172, 2 πάντα χρήματα. 155, 28. ab εύδηλον, Text

from DE. 2. Simpl. Phys. 33 v 155, 31.

155, 31. AD και αήρ τε και ο αιθήρ, Text follows EF'. 4. Simpl. Phys. 33 v 156, 4. (8 r 34, 21 substitutes for the last line a paraphrase of Fr. 3.)

34, 21 inserts ταύτα after αποκριθήναι. 34, 24 και της, Text from 156, 7.

3. Simpl. Phys. 8 Υ 34, 29. 33 v 156, 2. 33 v 157, 9. (Cf. p. 34, 25 at end of Fr. 4.)

TRANSLATION.

1. All things were together, infinite both in number and in smallness ; for the small also was infinite. And when they were all together, nothing was clear and distinct because of their smallness; for air and aether comprehended all things, both being infinite; for these are present in everything, and are greatest both as to number and as to greatness.

2. For air and aether are separated from the surrounding mass; and the surrounding (mass) is infinite in quantity.

4. But before these were separated, when all things were together, not even was any colour clear and distinct ; for the mixture of all things prevented it, the mixture of moist and dry, of the warm and the cold, and of the bright and the dark (since much earth was present), and of germs infinite in number, in no way like each other; for none of the other things at all resembles the one the other.

3. And since these things are so, it is necessary to think that in all the objects that are compound there existed many things of all sorts, and germs of all objects, having all sorts of forms and colours and tastes.

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