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Christopher Columbus studied there. The number of students was once (we believe in Shakespeare's age) eighteen thousand. Now that universities have multiplied, none are so thronged; but that of Padua still numbers from fifteen hundred to twenty-three hundred. Most of the educated youth of Lombardy pursue their studies there, and numbers from a greater distance. 'The mathematics' are still a favourite branch of learning, with some 'Greek, Latin, and other languages;' also natural philosophy and medicine. History and morals, and consequently politics, seem to be discouraged, if not omitted. The aspect of the University of Padua is now somewhat forlorn, though its halls are respectably tenanted by students. Its mouldering courts and dim staircases are thickly hung with the heraldic blazonry of the pious benefactors of the institution. The number of these coats-of-arms is so vast as to convey a strong impression of what the splendour of this seat of learning must once have been."-KNIGHT.

"-fruitful Lombardy,

The pleasant garden of great Italy."

"The rich plain of Lombardy is still like 'a pleasant garden,' and appears as if it must ever continue to be so, sheltered as it is by the vast barrier of the Alps, and fertilized by the streams which descend from their glaciers. From the walls of the Lombard cities, which are usually reared on rising grounds, the prospects are enchanting, presenting a fertile expanse, rarely disfigured by fences, intersected by the great Via Emilia-one long avenue of mulberry trees; gleaming here and there with transparent lakes, and adorned with scattered towns, villas, and churches, rising from among the vines. Corn, oil, and wine, are everywhere ripening together; and not a speck of barrenness is visible, from the northern Alps and eastern Adriatic, to the unobstructed southern horizon, where the plain melts away in sunshine." KNIGHT.

"My trusty servant"-So the folio. The word has been changed by some editors to most.

and HAPLY institute"-" In the modern editions, 'haply' is misprinted happily, which is a distinct word, with a different etymology. Haply' means perhaps, and not fortunately. So, at the end of the first scene of the Induction, the Lord says

-haply, my presence May well abate, etc.

In both cases, the line requires a word of two and not of three syllables. When the line requires that 'haply' should be pronounced as a trisyllable, it was generally spelled happily.' Act. iv. scene 4, of this comedy affords examples of happily' used in both senses."-COLLIER.

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"Gave me my being; my father, first

A merchant of great traffic through the world, Vincentio's come of the Bentivolii.”

This is the original folio reading, and though not without obscurity, may well be understood and intended to say thus:-"My father, who is firstly a merchant of the highest class, is also a noble Vincentio, descended from the illustrious Bentivolii. It shall, therefore, become his son, myself, to deck my name and fortune with virtuous acts. Few of the later editors, however, are satisfied with this reading and explanation, and they adopt Hanmer's emendation-"Vincentio's come of the Bentivolii," as meaning, that "Pisa gave me being, and before me my father, that father descended of the Bentivolii."

"ME PERDONATO"-" Me Perdonato" is the original text, for which Stevens and Malone say that we should read Mi Pardonate; and this emendation has been generally adopted. We retain the old text, with the change of a letter, for the reason well stated by Mr. C. Armitage Brown, who thus objects to Mi Pardonate:

"Indeed we should read no such thing as two silly errors in two common words. Shakespeare may have written Mi perdoni, or Perdonatemi; but why disturb

the text further than by changing the syllable par into per? It then expresses, (instead of pardon me.) me being pardoned; and is suitable both to the sense and

the metre

Me perdonato,-gentle master mine."

"Or so devote to Aristotle's ETHICKS"-The original text has "Aristotle's checks," which Knight and other editors retain. There is no very evident sense of checks which will suit the context, and therefore Judge Blackstone considered this as a misprint or error of a copyist for "ethicks;" which supposition is right. The error is natural for a copyist or compositor, and the context supports the correction. Tranio, speaking of the sciences, runs over the circle of them according to the familiar division of the times, and speaks of logic, rhetoric, music, poetry, mathematics, metaphysics; and "ethicks" would follow of course in such an enumeration. Besides, Aristotle's "Ethicks" were familiar to the stage, for Ben Jonson mentions them in his "Silent Woman."

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"—and PORT, and servants"-i. e. State, or show. Thus, in the MERCHANT OF VENICE:

And the magnificoes of greatest port.

"-COLOUR'D hat and cloak"-Fashions have now changed. Servants formerly wore clothes of sober hue; black or sad colour: their masters bore about the hues of the rainbow in their doublets and mantles, and hats and feathers. Such gay vestments were called emphatically coloured."-KNIGHT.

"My lord, you nod; you do not mind the play"— The old stage-direction before these interlocutions is, "The Presenters above speak;" meaning, Sly, the attendants, etc., in the balcony. Afterwards, before the next scene, the marginal direction is, "They sit and mark."


"-two and thirty,—a PIP out?"-" This passage has escaped the commentators; yet it is more obscure than many they have explained. Perhaps it was passed over because it was not understood? The allusion is to the old game of Bone-ace,' or 'One-and-thirty.' A 'pip' is a spot upon a card. The old copy has it peepe. The same allusion is in Massinger's Fatal Dowry,' act ii. scene 2.-You think, because you served my lady's mother [you] are thirty-two years old, which is a pip out, you know.' There is a secondary allusion (in which the joke lies) to a popular mode of inflicting punishment upon certain offenders. For a curious illustration of this, the reader may consult Florio's Italian Dictionary,' in v. Trentuno."-SINGER.

"what HE 'LEGES in Latin"-Grumio is supposed to mistake Italian for Latin; for though Italian were his native language, as Monck Mason observes, he speaks English, and Shakespeare did not mean to treat him otherwise than as an Englishman. Tyrwhitt's sugges tion for reading be leges, instead of "he leges," is, however, ingenious.

"Where small experience grows, but in a few." With Collier we preserve the old reading, the meaning being, that only a few have the power to gain much experience at home. The common reading is, "But in a few," meaning, as Johnson says, “in a few words— in short."

"Be she as foul as was Florentius' love"-The story of Florentius, or Florent, is told in Gower's "Confessio Amantis," lib. i.; and also in Lupton's "Thousand Notable Things," the earliest edition of which was printed in 1586. Florentius married over-night, for the sake of wealth, and next morning found his wife-the lothest wighte That ever man cast on his eye.

"Were she as rough As are the swelling Adriatic seas." "The Adriatic, though well land-locked, and in summer often as still as a mirror, is subject to severe and sudden storms. The great sea-wall which protects Venice, distant eighteen miles from the city, and built, of course, in a direction where it is best sheltered and supported by the islands, is, for three miles abreast of Palestrina, a vast work for width and loftiness; yet it is frequently surmounted in winter by the 'swelling Adriatic seas,' which pour over into the Lagunes."KNIGHT.

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"For shame, thou HILDING"-A mean-spirited person "BACKARE: you are marvellous forward"-This is a word of doubtful etymology and frequent occurrence: it is possibly only a corruption of "Back there!" for it is always used as a reproof to over-confidence. In "Ralf Roister Doister," act i. scene 2, we meet with it: Ah, sir! Backare, quoth Mortimer to his sow. And this expression is introduced by old John Heywood into his "Proverbs." The mode of employing the word is uniform.

"And this small packet of Greek and Latin books." "It is not to be supposed that the daughters of Baptista were more learned than other ladies of their city

and their time.

"Under the walls of universities, then the only centres of intellectual light, knowledge was shed abroad like sunshine at noon, and was naturally more or less enjoyed by all. At the time when Shakespeare and the Univer


sity of Padua flourished, the higher classes of women were not deemed unfitted for a learned education. Queen Elizabeth, Lady Jane Grey, the daughters of Sir Thomas More, and others, will at once occur to the reader's recollection in proof of this. Greek, Latin, and other languages,' 'the mathematics,' and to read philosophy,' then came as natural as 'music' within the scope of female education. Any association of pedantry with the training of the young ladies of this play is in the prejudices of the reader, not in the mind of the Poet."-KNIGHT.

"As morning roses newly WASH'D with dew"-Milton has honoured this fine image by adopting it in his "Il Allegro:"

And fresh-blown roses wash'd in dew.

"Good-morrow, Kate, for that's your name, I hear." This is founded upon a similar scene in the old play. Our readers may compare Shakespeare and his prede


Alf. Ha, Kate, come hither, wench, and list to me: Use this gentleman friendly as thou canst.

Fer. Twenty good-morrows to my lovely Kate. Kate. You jest, I am sure; is she yours already? Fer. I tell thee, Kate, I know thou lov'st me well. Kate. The devil you do! who told you so? Fer. My mind, sweet Kate, doth say I am the man, Must wed, and bed, and marry bonny Kate.

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Kate. Was ever seen so gross an ass as this? Fer. Ay, to stand so long, and never get a kiss. Kate. Hands off, I say, and get you from this place; Or I will set my ten commandments in your face.

Fer. I prithee do, Kate; they say thou art a shrew, And I like thee the better, for I would have thee so.

Kate. Let go my hand for fear it reach your ear. Fer. No, Kate, this hand is mine, and I thy love. Kate. I' faith, sir, no, the woodcock wants his tail Fer. But yet his bill will serve if the other fail. Alf. How now, Ferando? what, my daughter? Fer. She's willing, sir, and loves me as her life. Kate. 'Tis for your skin, then, but not to be your wife. Alf. Come hither, Kate, and let me give thy hand To him that I have chosen for thy love, And thou to-morrow shalt be wed to him.

Kate. Why, father, what do you mean to do with me, To give me thus, unto this brainsick man, That in his mood cares not to murder me? [She turns aside and speaks.

And yet I will consent and marry him, (For I, methinks, have liv'd too long a maid,) And match him too, or else his manhood's good.

Alf. Give me thy hand; Ferando loves thee well,
And will with wealth and ease maintain thy state.
Here, Ferando, take her for thy wife,
And Sunday next shall be our wedding-day.

Fer. Why so, did I not tell thee I should be the man?
Father, I leave my lovely Kate with you,
Provide yourselves against our marriage-day,
For I must hie me to my country house
In haste, to see provision may be made
To entertain my Kate when she doth come.

Alf. Do so; come Kate, why dost thou look So sad? Be merry, wench, thy wedding day's at hand; Son, fare you well, and see you keep your promise. [Exit ALFONSO and KATE." "Should be? should? buz"-This has been ordinarily printed

Should be? Should buz.

We follow the original with Knight, understanding with him, "buz" to be an interjection of ridicule; as, in HAMLET:

Pol. The actors are come hither, my lord. Ham. Buz, buz.


you crow too like a CRAVEN"-" A 'craven' cock, and a 'craven' knight were each contemptible. The knight who had craven, or craved, life from an

antagonist, was branded with the name which he had uttered in preferring safety to honour. The terms of chivalry and cock-fighting were synonymous in the feudal times, as those of the cock-pit and the boxingring are equivalent now. To show a white feather is now a term of pugilism, derived from the ruffled plumes of the frightened bird."-KNIGHT.

"And bring you from a WILD KATE to a Kate Conformable, as other household Kates."

This is the original text. Doubtless, a play on words was meant, which anciently, when a was more broadly sounded than now, would be obvious-" wild Kate" and wild cat. This, however, does not authorize our printing it wild cat, as Stevens and others have done.


"she will prove a second GRISSEL"-Alluding to the story of Griselda," so beautifully related by Chaucer, and aken by him from Boccacio. It is thought to be older than the time of the Florentine, as it is to be found among the old fabliaux, according to Douce.

"She VIED 80 fast"-To "vie" was a term at cards, and sometimes we meet with revie; outvie occurs in this play afterwards. It meant to challenge, or stake. or brag; and the phrases were used in the old games of Gleek and Primero, superseded by the Brag of the present day.

"'tis a WORLD to see"-The meaning is-It is worth a world to see. So, in B. C. Rydley's "Brief Declaration," (1555,) quoted by Collier :-" It is a world to see the answer of the Papists to this statement of Origen."

"A MEACOCK wretch"-i. e. A cowardly wretch. "Meacock" has been derived by some from meek and cock, (but mes coq, Fr., Skinner,) and it is used by old writers both as an adjective and as a substantive.

"I will unto Venice, To buy apparel 'gainst the wedding-day."




my house within the city Is richly furnished with plate and gold," etc. "If Shakespeare had not seen the interior of Italian houses when he wrote this play, he must have possessed some effectual means of knowing and realizing in his imagination the particulars of such an interior. Any educated man might be aware that the extensive commerce of Venice must bring within the reach of the neighbouring cities, a multitude of articles of foreign production and taste. But there is a particularity in his mention of these articles, which strongly indicates the experience of an eye-witness. The cypress chests,' and ivory coffers,' rich in antique carving, are still existing, with some remnants of Tyrian tapestry,' to carry back the imagination of the traveller to the days of the glory of the republic. The plate and gold' are, for the most part, gone, to supply the needs of the impoverished aristocracy, who (to their credit) will part with every thing sooner than their pictures. The tents and canopies,' and 'Turkey cushions 'boss'd with pearl,' now no longer seen, were appropriate to the days when Cyprus, Candia, and the Morea were dependencies of Venice, scattering their productions through the eastern cities of Italy, and actually establishing many of their customs in the singular capital of the Venetian dominion. After Venice, Padua was naturally first served with importations of luxury.


"Venice was, and is still, remarkable for its jewellery, especially its fine works in gold. Venice gold' was wrought into valence'-tapestry-by the needle, and was used for every variety of ornament, from chains as fine as if made of woven hair, to the most massive form in which gold can be worn. At the present day, the traveller who walks round the Piazza of St. Mark's is surprised at the large proportion of jeweller's shops, and at the variety and elegance of the ornaments they contain,-the shell necklaces, the jewelled rings and tiaras, and the profusion of gold chains."-KNIGHT.

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"-past cure of the FIVES"-i. e. Vives, or avives, another disorder in horses.

"SWAYED in the back"-" Waid in the back," old copies.


"— NE'ER-LEGGED before"-The folio has it " legged;" which some editors have given as here, and others near-legged. Malone thus supports the first:"Ne'er-legged before, i. e. foundered in his forefeet; having, as the jockeys term it, never a fore leg to stand The subsequent words-which being restrained to keep him from stumbling'— -seem to countenance this interpretation. The modern editors read near-legged before; but to go near before is not reckoned a defect, but a perfection, in a horse."


Lord Chadworth (an accomplished and unfortunate nobleman, of whose taste and acquirements many traces are to be found in the literature of his times) thus maintains the other reading:-"I believe near-legged is right; the near leg of a horse is the left, and to set off with that leg first is an imperfection. This horse had (as Dryden describes old Jacob Tonson) two left legs; i. e. he was awkward in the use of them; he used his right leg like the left."

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"— quaff'd off the muscadel"-T. Warton and Reed have shown, from numerous quotations, that the custom of having wine and sops distributed immediately after the marriage ceremony in the church, is very ancient. It existed even among our Gothic ancestors, and is mentioned in the ordinances of the household of Henry VII. "For the Marriage of a Princess:"-" Then pottes of Ipocrice to be ready, and to bee put into cupps with soppe, and to be borne to the estates; and to take a soppe and drinke." It was also practised at the marriage of Philip and Mary, in Winchester Cathedral; and at the marriage of the Elector-Palatine to the daughter of James I., in 1612-13. It appears to have been the custom at all marriages. In Jonson's " Magnetic Lady" it is called a knitting cup; in Middleton's "No Wit like

a Woman's," the contracting cup. The kiss was also part of the ancient marriage ceremony, as appears from a rubric in one of the Salisbury Missals.

"I must away to-day, before night come." We subjoin the parallel scene in the earlier play :"Fer. Father, farewell, my Kate and I must home. Sirrah, go make ready my horse presently.

Alf. Your horse! what, son, I hope you do but jest; I am sure you will not go so suddenly.

Kate. Let him go or tarry, I am resolved to stay, And not to travel on my wedding-day.

Fer. Tut, Kate, I tell thee we must needs go home. Villain, hast thou saddled my horse?

San. Which horse-your curtall?

Fer. Zounds! you slave, stand you prating here? Saddle the bay gelding for your mistress.

Kate. Not for me, for I will not go.

San. The ostler will not let me have him; you owe tenpence

For his meat, and sixpence for stuffing my mistress' saddle.

Fer. Here, villain, go pay him straight.

San. Shall I give them another peck of lavender? Fer. Out, slave! and bring them presently to the door. Alf. Why, son, I hope at least you'll dine with us. San. I pray you, master, let's stay till dinner be done. Fer. Zounds, villain, art thou here yet?


Come, Kate, our dinner is provided at home.
Kate. But not for me, for here I mean to dine:
I'll have my will in this as well as you;
Though you in madding mood would leave your friends,
Despite of you I'll tarry with them still.

Fer. Ay, Kate, so thou shalt, but at some other time:
When as thy sisters here shall be espoused,
Then thou and I will keep our wedding-day
In better sort than now we can provide;
For here I promise thee before them all,
We will ere long return to them again.
Come, Kate, stand not on terms, we will away;
This is my day, to-morrow thou shalt rule,
And I will do whatever thou command'st.
Gentlemen, farewell, we'll take our leaves,
It will be late before that we come home.
[Exeunt FERANDO and KATE."

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same liberty later in this play, (act v. scene 2,) where Petruchio says, "I'll venture so much of my hawk, or hound."

- how she was BEMOILED"-Bemired.

"-and their garters of an INDIFFERENT knitGrumio is not accurate enough in his diction to deserve the critical pains that learned annotators have taken to explain this phrase. Malone, on no very clear authority, maintains it to mean "party-coloured garters;" while Johnson and others assert that the garters ought to correspond, and that "indifferent" here meant not different. A more obvious sense is that intimated by Nares, in his 'Glossary:"—" Tolerable, or ordinary." Then-" Let their garters (which were worn outside) be decent."

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"Where be these knaves"—This scene is one of the most spirited and characteristic in the play; and we see a joyous, revelling spirit shining through Petruchio's affected violence. The Ferando of the old "Taming of a Shrew" is a coarse bully, without the fine animal spirits and the real self-command of our Petruchio. The following is the parallel scene in that play; and it is remarkable how closely Shakespeare copies the incidents:

"Enter FERANDO and KATE.

Fer. Now welcome, Kate. Where's these villains Here? what, not supper yet upon the board, Nor table spread, nor nothing done at all? Where's that villain that I sent before?

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Enter FERANDO again. San. I hurt his foot for the nonce, man. Fer. Did you so, you damned villain? [He beats them all out again This humour must I hold me to awhile, To bridle and hold back my headstrong wife, With curbs of hunger, ease, and want of sleep; Nor sleep, nor meat shall she enjoy to-night. I'll mew her up as men do mew their hawks. And make her gently come unto the lure: Were she as stubborn, or as full of strength, As was the Thracian horse Alcides tamed, That king Egeus fed with flesh of men, Yet would I pull her down, and make her come, As hungry hawks do fly unto their lure.


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