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Kauweekau neezhikay ussa- )
man ne sugguswaunausee, 5 But l never smoke Pure tobacc*
Monaudud maishkowaugumig, Strong drink (is) bad.
p Keeguhgee baudjeegonaun, It makes us foolish.
Gitshee Monedo nebee ogee ) m, „ „ . . , ozhetSn, ^ The Great Spirit made water.
Inineewugdushweenishkada-) — . , . .
waubo ogeo ozhetSnahwaun. lBut man made whlskey
These expressions are put down promiscuously, embracing verbs and Qouns as they presented themselves; and without any effort to support the opinion—which may, or may not be correct—that the elementary forms of the adjectives are most commonly required before verbs and nouns in the first and second persons. The English expression is thrown into Indian in the most natural manner, and of course, without always giving adjective for adjective, or noun for noun. Thus, God is rendered, not "Monedo," but, "Geezha Monedo," Merciful Spirit. Good luck, is rendered by the compound phrase "Shawaindaugoozzeyun," indicating, in a very general sense the influence of kindness or benevolence on success in life. "Songedaa is alone, a brave man; and the word " Kagat," prefixed, is an adverb. In the expression "mild tobacco," the adjective is entirely dispensed with in the Indian, the sense being sufficiently rendered by the compound noun "appaukoozzegun," which always means the Indian weed, or smoking mixture. "Ussamau," on the contrary, without the adjective, signifies, "pure tobacco." "Bikwakon," signifies blunt, or lumpy-headed arrows. Assowaun is the barbed arrow. Kwonaudj kweeweezains, means, not simply "pretty boy," but pretty little boy; and there is no mode of using the word boy but in this diminutive form—the the word itself being a derivative, from kewewe, conjugal with the regular diminutive in ains. "Onaunegoozzin" embraces the pronoun, verb and adjective, be thou cheerful. In the last phrase of the examples, "man," is rendered men (inineewug) in the translation, as the term man cannot be employed in the general plural sense it conveys in this connection, in the original. The word " whiskey," is rendered by the compound phrase ishk&dawaubo, literally, fine-liquor, a generic for all kinds of ardent spirits.
These aberrations from the literal term, will convey some conceptions of the difference of the two idioms, although, from the limited nature and object of the examples, they will not indicate the full extent of this difference. In giving any thinglike the spirit of the original, much greater deviations, in the written forms, must appear. And in fact, not only the structure of the language, but the mode and order of thought of the Indians is so essentially different, that any attempts to preserve the English idiom —to give letter for letter, and word for word, must go far to render the
translation pure nonsense.
2. Varied as the adjective is, in its changes it has no comparative in. flection. A Chippewa cannot say that one substance is hotter or colder than another; or of two or more substances unequally heated, that this, of that is the hottest or coldest, without employing adverbs, or accessory adjectives. And it is accordingly by adverbs, and accessory adjectives, that the degrees of comparison are expressed.
Pimmaudizziwin, is a very general substantive expression, in indicating the tenor of being or life. Izzhewabizziwin, is a term near akin to it, but more appropriately applied to the acts, conduct, manner, or personal deportment of life. Hence the expressions:
Nin bimmaudizziwin, My tenor of life.
Ke bimmaudizziwin, Thy tenor of life.
O Pimmaudizziwin, His tenor of life, &c.
Nin dizekewabizziwin, My personal deportment.
Ke dizhewabizziwin, Thy personal deportment.
O Izzhewabizziwin, His personal deportment, &c.
To form the positive degree of comparison for these.terms minno, good, and mudjee, bad, are introduced between the pronoun and verb, giving rise to some permutations of the vowels and consonants, which affect the sound only. Thus :—
Ne minno pimmaudizziwin, My good tenor of life.
Ke minno pimmaudizziwin, Thy good tenor of life.
Minno pimmaudizziwin, His good tenor of life.
Ne mudjee pimmaudizziwin, My bad tenor of life.
Ke mudjee pimmaudizziwin, Thy bad tenor of life.
Mudjee pimmaudizziwin, His bad tenor of life.
To place these forms in the comparative degree, nahwudj, more, is prefixed to the adjective; and the superlative is denoted by mahmowee, an adverb, or an adjective as it is variously applied, but the meaning of which, is, in this connexion, most. The degrees of comparison may be therefore set down as follows :—
Positive, Kisheda, Hot, (restricted to the heat of a fire.)
Comp. Nahwudj Kisheda, More hot.
Super. Mahmowee Kisheda, Most hot.
Your manner of life is good, Ke dizzihewabizziwin onishishin.
Ke d izzhewabizziwin nahwudj onis
( Ke dizzhew Your manner of life is better, j hishin
Your manner of life is best,
Tecumseh was braver, Tecumseh nahwidj songedaabun.
Pontiac was bravest, Pontiac mahmowee songedaabun.
3. The adjective assumes a negative form when it is preceeded by the adverb. Thus the phrase songedaa, he is brave, is changed to, Kahween songedaasee, he is not brave.
Neebwaukah, Kahween neebwaukah-see,
He is wise. He is not wise.
Kwonaudjewe, Kahween kwonaudjewe-see.
She is handsome, She is not handsome.
Oskineegee, Kahween oskineegee-see.
He is young. He is not young.
Shaugweewee, Kahween Shaugweewee-see,
He is feeble. He is not feeble.
Geekkau, Kahween Geekkau-see,
He is old. He is not old.
Mushkowizzi, Kahween Mushkowizzi-see,
He is strong. He is not strong.
From this rule the indeclinable adjectives—by which is meant those ad jvctives which do not put on the personal and impersonal forms by inflection, but consist of radically different roots—form exceptions
Are you sick? Ke dahkoozzi nuh?
you are not sick I Kahween ke dahkoozzi-seeI
I am happy. Ne minwaindum.
I am unhappy. Kahween ne minwuinduz-see
His manner of life is bad. Mudjee izzhewabizzi.
His manner of life is not bad. Kahween mudjee a izzhewabizzirsee.
It is large. Mitshau muggud.
It is not large. Kahween mitshau-seenon.
In these examples the declinable adjectives are rendered negative in see. The indeclinable, remain as simple adjuncts to the verbs, and the latter put on the negative form.
4. In the hints and remarks which have now been furnished respecting the Chippewa adjective, its powers and inflections have been shown to run parallel with those of the substantive, in its separation into animates and inanimates,—in having the pronominal inflections,—in taking an inflection for tense—(a topic, which, by the way, has been very cursorily passed over,) and in the numerous, modifications to form the compounds. This parallelism has also been intimated to hold good with respect to number—a subject deeply interesting in itself, as it has its analogy only in the ancient languages, and it was therefore deemed best to defer giving examples till they could be introduced without abstracting the attention from other points of discussion.
Minno and mudjee, good and bad, being of the limited number of per*onal adjectives, which modern usage permits being applied, although often improperly applied, to inanimate objects, they as well as a few other adjectives, form exceptions to the use of number. Whether we say a good man or a bad man, good men or bad men, the words minno and mudjee, remain the same. But all the declinable and coalescing adjectives—adjectives which join on, and, as it were, melt into the body of the substantive, take the usual plural inflections, and are governed by the same rules in regard to their use, as the substantive, personal adjectives requiring personal plurals, &c.
Kwonaudjewe eekwa, Handsome woman.
Songedaa inine, Brave man.
Bishegaindaugoozzi peenasee, Beautiful bird.
Kwonaudjewe-wug eekwa-wug, Handsome women.
Songedaa-wug inine-wug, Brave men.
Bishegaindaugoozzi-wug peenasee-wug, Beautiful birds.
Kwonaudj tshemaun, Handsome canoe.
Monaudud ishkoda, Bad fire.
Weeshkobun aidetaig, Sweet fruit
Kwonaudjewun-on tshemaun-un, Handsome canoes.
Weeshkobun-on aidetaig-in, Sweet fruits.
Peculiar circumstances are supposed to exist, in order to render the use of the adjective, in this connexion with the noun, necessary and proper. But in ordinary instances, as the narration of events, the noun would precede the adjective, and oftentimes, particularly where a second allusion to objects previously named became necessary, the compound expressions would be used. Thus instead of saying the yellow bee, w&yzahwizzid, would distinctly convey the idea of that insect, had the species been before named. Under similar circumstances kainwaukoozzid, again-