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Kauweekau neezhikay ussä

But I never smoke pure tobacco.
mau ne sugguswaunausee,
Monaudud maishkowaugumig, Strong drink (is) bad.
Keeguhgee baudjeëgonaun, It makes us foolish.
Gitshee Monedo nebee ogee

The Great Spirit made water.
Inineewug dush ween ishkädä.)

But man made whiskey. waubo


ozhetönahwaun.) These expressions are put down promiscuously, embracing verbs and couns as they presented themselves; and without any effort to support the opinion-which may, or may not be correct—that the elementary forms of the adjectives are most commonly required before verbs and nouns in the first and second persons. The English expression is thrown into Indian in the most natural manner, and of course, without always giving adjective for adjective, or noun for noun. Thus, God is rendered, not "Monedo," but, “Geezha Monedo," Merciful Spirit. Good luck, is rendered by the compound phrase "Shawaindaugoozzeyun," indicating, in a very general sense the influence of kindness or benevolence on success in life. “Söngedää is alone, a brave man; and the word “ Kägät," prefixed, is an adverb. In the expression “mild tobacco," the adjective is entirely dispensed with in the Indian, the sense being sufficiently rendered by the compound noun “appaukoozzegun," which always means the Indian weed, or smoking mixture. “Ussamau," on the contrary, without the adjective, signifies, “pure tobacco.” “Bikwakön," signifies blunt, or lumpy-headed arrows. Assowaun is the barbed arrow. Kwonaudj kweeweezains, means, not simply "pretty boy," but pretty little boy; and there is no mode of using the word boy but in this diminutive form—the the word itself being a derivative, from kewewe, conjugal with the regular diminutive in ains. "Onaunegoozzin" embraces the pronoun, verb and

· adjective, be thou cheerful. In the last phrase of the examples," man," is rendered men (inineewug) in the translation, as the term man cannot be employed in the general plural sense it conveys in this connection, in the original. The word “whiskey,” is rendered by the compound phrase ishkodawaubo, literally, fine-liquor, a generic for all kinds of ardent spirits. These aberrations from the literal term, will

convey some conceptions of the difference of the two idioms, although, from the limited nature and object of the examples, they will not indicate the full extent of this difference. In giving anything like the spirit of the original, much greater deviations, in the written forms, must appear. And in fact, not only the

, structure of the language, but the mode and order of thought of the Indians is so essentially different, that any attempts to preserve the English idiom —to give letter for letter, and word for word, must go far to render the aanslation pure nonsense'.

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2. Varied as the adjective is, in its changes it has no comparative in. flection. A Chippewa cannot say that one substance is hotter or colder than another; or of two or more substances unequally heated, that this, or that is the hottest or coldest, without employing adverbs, or accessory adjectives. And it is accordingly by adverbs, and accessory adjectives, that the degrees of comparison are expressed.

Pimmaudizziwin, is a very general substantive expression, in indicating the tenor of being or life. Izzhewäbizziwin, is a term near akin to it, but more appropriately applied to the acts, conduct, manner, or personal deport ment of life. Hence the expressions : Nin bimmaudizziwin,

My tenor of life.
Ke bimmaudizziwin,

Thy tenor of life.
O Pimmaudizziwin,

His tenor of life, &c.
Nin dizekewäbizziwin,

My personal deportment.
Ke dizhewäbizziwin,

Thy personal deportment
O Izzhewäbizziwin,

His personal deportment, &c. To form the positive degree of comparison for these terms minno, good, and mudjee, bad, are introduced between the pronoun and verb, giving rise to some permutations of the vowels and consonants, which affect the sound only. Thus:

Ne minno pimmaudizziwin, My good tenor of life.
Ke minno pimmaudizzivin, Thy good tenor of life.
Minno pimmaudizziwin,

His good tenor of life.
Ne mudjee pimmaudizziwin, My bad tenor of life.
Ke mudjee pimmaudizziwin, Thy bad tenor of life.
Mudjee pimmaudizziwin, His bad tenor of life.

To place these forms in the comparative degree, nahwudj, more, is prefixed to the adjective, and the superlative is denoted by mahmowee, an adverb, or an adjective as it is variously applied, but the meaning of which, is, in this connexion, most. The degrees of comparison may be therefore set down as follows :Positive, Kishedä,

Hot, (restricted to the heat of a fire.)
Сотр. Nahwudj Kishedä, More hot.

Super. Mahmowee Kishedä, Most hot.
Your manner of life is good, Ke dizzihewäbizziwin onishishin.

Ke dizzhewäbizziwin nahwudj onis. Your manner of life is better,

? hishin.

Ke dizzhewäbizziwin mahmowee Your manner of life is best,


Odizzhewa bizziwin mahmowee onishHis manner of life is best,

ishinine. Little Turtle was brave,

Mikkenoköns söngedääbun.


He is young.

Tecumseh was braver, Tecumseh nahwidj söngedääbun.
Pontiac was bravest,

Pontiac mahmowee söngedääbun. 3. The adjective assumes a negative form when it is preceeded by the adverb. Thus the phrase söngedää, he is brave, is changed to, Kahween söngedäasee, he is not brave. Positive.


Kahween neebwaukah-see,
He is wise.

He is not wise.

Kahween kwonaudjewe-see,
She is handsome,

She is not handsome.

Kahween oskineegee-see.

He is not young.

Kahween Shaugweewee-see,
He is feeble.

He is not feeble.

Kahween Geekkau-see,
He is old.

He is not old.

Kahween Mushkowizzi-see,
He is strong

He is not strong From this rule the indeclinable adjectives—by which is meant those adjuctives which do not put on the personal and impersonal forms by inflection, but consist of radically different roots—form exceptions. Are you sick?

Ke dahkoozzi nuh? You are not sick!

Kahween ke dahkoozzi-see! I am happy.

Ne minwaindum. I am unhappy.

Kahween ne minwuinduz-see His manner of life is bad. Mudjee izzhewabizzi. His manner of life is not bad. Kahween mudjee a izzhewabizzi-see. It is large.

Mitshau muggud. It is not large.

Kahween mitshau-seenön. In these examples the declinable adjectives are rendered negative in see. The indeclinable, remain as simple adjuncts to the verbs, and the latter put on the negative form.

4. In the hints and remarks which have now been furnished respecting the Chippewa adjective, its powers and inflections have been shown to run parallel with those of the substantive, in its separation into animates and inanimates,-in having the pronominal inflections,—in taking an infilection for tense-(a topic, which, by the way, has been very cursorily passed over,) and in the numerous, modifications to form the compounds. This parallelism has also been intimated to hold good with respect to number—a subject deeply interesting in itself, as it has its analogy only in the ancient languages, and it was therefore deemed best to defer giving examples till they could be introduced without abstracting the attention from other points of discussion.


Minno and mudjee, good and bad, being of the limited number of personal adjectives, which modern usage permits being applied, although often improperly applied, to inanimate objects, they as well as a few other adjectives, form exceptions to the use of number. Whether we say a good man or a bad man, good men or bad men, the words minno and mudjee, remain the same. But all the declinable and coalescing adjectives—adjec. tives which join on, and, as it were, melt into the body of the substantive, take the usual plural inflections, and are governed by the same rules in regard to their use, as the substantive, personal adjectives requiring personal plurals, &c.

Adjectives Animate.

Onishishewe mishemin,

Good apple.
Kwonaudjewe eekwä,

Handsome woman.
Songedää inine,

Brave man.
Bishegaindaugoozzi peenasee,

Beautiful bird.
Ozahwizzi ahmo,

Yellow bee.

Onishishewe-wug mishemin-ug,

Good apples.
Kwonaudjewe-wug eekwa-wug, Handsome women.
Songedää-wug inine-wug,

Brave men.
Bishegaindaugoozzi-wug peenasee-wug, Beautiful birds.
Ozahwizzi-wug ahm-ög,

Yellow bees.
Adjectives Inanimate.

Onishishin mittig,

Good tree.
Kwonaudj tshemaun,

Handsome canoe.
Monaudud ishkoda,

Bad fire.
Weeshkobun aidetaig,

Sweet fruit.

Onishishin-ön mittig-ön,

Good trees.
Kwonaudjewun-ön tshemaun-un, Handsome canoes.
Monaudud-on ishkod-an,

Bad fires.
Weeshkobun-ön aidetaig-in,

Sweet fruits. Peculiar circumstances are supposed to exist, in order to render the use of the adjective, in this connexion with the noun, necessary and proper. But in ordinary instances, as the narration of events, the noun would precede the adjective, and oftentimes, particularly where a second allusion to objects previously named became necessary, the compound ex. pressions would be used. Thus instead of saying the yellow bee, wäy. zahwizzid, would distinctly convey the idea of that insect, had the species been before named. Under similar circumstances kainwaukoozzid, agau


sheid sõngaunemud, mushkowaunemud, would respectively signify, a tall tree, a small fly, a strong wind, a hård wind. And these terms would become plural in jig, which, as before mentioned, is a mere modification of ig, one of the five general animate plural inflections of the language.

Kägat wahwinaudj abbenöjeeug, is an expression indicating they are very handsome children. Bubbeeweezheewug monetösug, denotes small insects. Minno neewugizzi, is good tempered, he is good tempered. Mawshininewugizzi, is bad tempered, both having their plural in wug. Nin nuneenah waindum, I am lonesome. Nin nuneenah waindaumin, we (excluding you) are lonesome. Waweea, is a term generally usod to express the adjective sense of round. Kwy, is the scalp. (Weenikwy his scalp.) Hence Weewukwon, hat; Wayweewukwonid, a wearer of the hat; and its plural Wayeewukwonidjig, wearers of the hats—the usual term applied to Europeans, or white men generally. These examples go to prove, that under every form in which the adjective can be traced, whether in its simplest or most compound state, it is susceptible of number.

The numerals of the language are converted into adverbs, by the inflection ing, making one, once, &c. The unit exists in duplicate.

Päzhik, One, general unit? Aubeding, Once.

Ingoot, One, numerical unit)
Neesh, Two.

Neeshing, Twice.
Niswee, Three.

Nissing, Thrice.
Neewin, Four.

Neewing, Four-times.
Naunun, Five.

Nauning, Five-times.
N'good waswa, Six. N'goodwautshing, Six-times.
Neeshwauswä, Seven. Neeshwautshing, Seven-times.
Shwauswe, Eight. Shwautshing, Eight-times.
Shongusswe, Nine.

Shongutshing, Nine-times. Meetauswee, Ten. Meetaushing, Ten-times. These inflections can be carried as high as they can compute numbers. They count decimally. After reaching ten, they repeat, ten and one, ten and two, &c. to twenty. Twenty is a compound signifying two tens, thirty, three tens, &c., a mode which is carried up to one hundred n'goodwak. Wak, then becomes the word of denomination, combining with the names of the digits, until they reach a thousand, meetauswauk, literally, ten hundred. Here a new compound term is introduced made by prefixing twenty to the last denomination, neshtonnah duswak, which doubles the last term, thirty triples it, forty quadruples it, &c., till the computation reaches to ten thousand, n'goodwak dushing n'goodwak, one hundred times one hundred. This is the probable extent of all certain computation. The term Gitshee, (great,) prefixed to the last denomination, leaves the number indefinite.

There is no form of the numerals corresponding to second, third, fourth, &c. They can only further say, nittum first, and ishkwaudj, last.

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