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students, while botany occupies part of the senior year, as in the classical course. These courses are conducted by text-book entirely, and no provision is made for practical work.
Students applying for admission to the scientific course are required to pass examinations in elementary physics and physiology. This instruction is furnished by the preparatory department of Hamline University, as well as by most of the schools of the State.
No scientific work is introduced into the classical college course until the junior year, when chemistry and biology begin simultaneously. The latter consists of a course in general biology, to which is given 2 afternoons weekly through two terms, followed by a course in systematic botany, to which the same time is given. Classical students are given, in the senior year, a course of lectures and recitations in animal physiology, continuing through two terms and occupying 23 hours weekly. The course prescribed for scientific students is the same, with the addition of a course in zoölogy in the freshman year, to which 3 afternoons weekly are devoted. All of these courses are largely practical. The work of the freshman class is a series of studies on the invertebrates. In the junior class attention is given to cryptogamic botany and mammalian anatomy during two terms, followed in the third by a general course in morphological and physiological botany of phanerogams, including plant analysis. In connection with the course in physiology a certain amount of laboratory work in histology is prescribed.
The laboratory has no facilities except for work of a simple character. It has a limited number of microscopes and the usual accessories. Laboratory work is a required part of each course.
A museum of considerable size has been gotten together, and so arranged as to greatly facilitate the work of teaching. There has recently been added a number of mounted vertebrate skeletons, in addition to numerous smaller specimens.
The biological work consists of an elementary course in the junior preparatory class. A course in botany is offered in the sophomore year, followed by a course in anatomy and physiology in the junior. There is no provision for practical work further than a small amount of microscopic work. Additional facilities will soon be provided.
Owing to the great freedom which is here offered students in the choice of studies, it is possible for anyone so inclined to follow a large number of different lines of biological study. The methods by which the entrance examinations are conducted insure that every student following a scientific course will have had a preliminary training in elementary science. The requirements for entrance are divided into elementary and advanced studies. All students are required to pass the elementary examinations in either physics or chemistry, and must have performed a series of experiments not less than forty in number in one of these branches. In the advanced examinations in these subjects, which prospective scientific students are expected to pass, a practical laboratory test is conducted, as well as a written examination. The candidate must also at the time of examination hand in for inspection a note-book containing the result of not less than sixty experiments in addition to the elementary requirements.
In the freshman class physics and chemistry are the only scientific subjects prescribed, and to each of these 1 hour weekly is devoted during half a year. In addition, a course may be elected by freshmen, consisting of zoology during the first half-year and botany during the second. In each subject 2 hours weekly are devoted to lectures and 3 hours additional are devoted to laboratory work. Both of these courses are elementary, serving as an introductory course for those wishing to go farther, and yet complete in themselves for those who wish merely a general view of the subjects.
During the remaining years of the course students may elect a course in general biology, consisting of three exercises weekly, and to those who have finished all the work above mentioned further courses in zoology and botany are open. To these 2 or 3 hours weekly are devoted, laboratory work being required in addition. A special course in cryptogamic botany is open to students who have taken the general course in botany and general biology. This consists of three weekly exercises during half the year with laboratory work. Half-courses are also offered in microscopic anatomy and comparative osteology, the former receiving 3 hours and the latter 1 hour weekly, and each involving laboratory work additional.
Post-graduates and undergraduates who are exceptionally well prepared may undertake, under the direction of the various instructors, special advanced work in different directions. The courses at present offered are in embryology, entomology, vegetable physiology, economic and cryptogamic botany, and paleontology.
In the Lawrence Scientific School, among the courses leading to the degree bachelor of science is one in which biology receives special attention. The individual courses in biology are the same as those above
mentioned, differing in this respect only that they are all prescribed at fixed times, the entire course occupying 4 years. Zoology and botany are taken up in the first, general biology and botany in the second, and zoology and cryptogamic botany in the third. The fourth year is devoted to research in some one of the special lines mentioned above.
There are separate workrooms provided for the department of zoölogy and cryptogamic and phænogamic botany. The last named are located at the botanical garden, the others in the museum of comparative zoology, considerable portions of the fourth and fifth floors being devoted to this purpose. Seventeen small laboratories are provided for the special use of advanced students engaged in a study of the museum collections. One additional laboratory is arranged for advanced work in anatomy and embryology, while there are besides three large laboratories for general class work. Each of these is well lighted and fitted for the work there performed, containing modern appliances in sufficient quantity. The entire contents of the museum of comparative zoology are available for the illustration of these courses, but there is a special set of embryological models, in addition to several cases of anatomical preparations specially adapted to this purpose.
The courses in cryptogamic botany are conducted in the same building, and ample provision is made both in regard to space and equipment for the work of undergraduate classes as well as special advanced students. For the former everything needed for work is provided, while of special interest to the latter are the large collections of fungi and other lower forms.
The courses in phænogamic botany and vegetable physiology are conducted at the botanical garden, where every facility is provided for them. Abundant laboratory space and all needed instruments are furnished, while the garden yields an abundance of specimens for study, about 6,000 species of flowering plants being cultivated for this purpose. Of special value to investigators is the large herbarium containing about 200,000 specimens collected from all over the world, and the botanical library, consisting of about 8,000 volumes and pamphlets, close by the herbarium and readily accessible. Special mention should also be made of the large collection of glass models of flowers, about 600 species in all, made by Blatschka. These illustrate all the important genera found in the northern United States, and furnish valuable means for lecture illustrations.
Mention should be made of the summer courses in botany, which consist of lectures upon structural botany and vegetable histology, accompanied by laboratory work.
In the Bussey Institution, a branch of Harvard at Jamaica Plain, Mass., biological work is taken up at the beginning of the course. Attention is at first given to lectures and demonstrations upon the subjects of cell structure, protoplasm, relations of animal and vegetable
tissues, etc., after which the general classification of animals is considered, the leading characters of each group being presented. Special attention is then given to insects, dissections and drawings being required illustrative not merely of the anatomy of the adult forms but of the development, including fertilization, segmentation, and later stages. The classification, habits, and general economy of insects are then considered, with special reference to the forms injurious to vegetation and the means for their extermination.
Instruction is also given in botany. This embraces the element of structural and systematic botany and the general classification of flowering plants. Abundant practice is given in plant analysis, with special reference to the needs of students of agriculture and horticulture.
Instruction in these subjects is given by lectures and practical work. One and one-quarter hours weekly are given to lectures. Every student is required to do a certain amount of laboratory work, but is not restricted in time.
The equipment for laboratory work is ample for the needs of the institution. There is abundant room for students engaged in elementary work, and in addition there are unusually good opportunities for research in entomology and the embryology of insects. Unusual facilities for botanical work are also offered in the greenhouses of the institution, as well as in the Arnold arboretum.
Students applying for admission are not subject to formal examination, but a certain amount of scientific knowledge is presupposed. It is recommended that all such students spend one year at the Lawrence Scientific School in Cambridge (which see), taking the preliminary course there provided, which includes elementary courses in chemistry, physics, biology, and geology.
HAVERFORD COLLEGE, PA.
Candidates for admission to the freshman class of the classical course are not subject to entrance examination in any scientific subjects. Those applying for the scientific course must pass an examination in the elements of physics and physiology. Many of the schools of the State furnish the amount of scientific instruction required, and pupils are admitted to college without examination from all schools approved by the college.
The college course in biology begins with a course of lectures in physiology and hygiene, 2 hours weekly in the freshman year being given to this work. Scientific students are required to spend one afternoon each week in practical exercises in connection with this course. During the second half-year botany is taken up, the general subjects of vegetable morphology, physiology, and classification being considered.
The laboratory work of the classical section consists mainly in the analysis of flowering plants, while the scientific sections spend 24 hours weekly in working through a selected series of cryptogams.
Sophomores of the scientific course have one lecture weekly in systematic zoology during half the year. In connection with this is a series of laboratory exercises in general biology. During the second half-year scientific sophomores are given a laboratory course in vertebrate zoölogy, the results of this work being embodied in a thesis, which takes the place of an examination.
Biology is elective in the junior and senior years. The courses there offered are a course of lectures and laboratory work in general biology, a course in invertebrate zoology and vegetable histology, a course in vertebrate anatomy and histology, and a course in embryology. To each of these 2 hours per week are given, the latter course occupying but half the year. All of these are undergraduate courses, open alike to classical and scientific students.
Advanced courses in comparative morphology, as well as in pathology and bacteriology, are open to post-graduate students and may be included in courses leading to the degrees of doctor of philosophy and doctor of science.
The laboratory appliances are sufficient for eighteen students doing elementary work. They consist of microscopes and the usual accessories, reagents, etc. A special laboratory is set apart for the use of students engaged in advanced work. This room is supplied with microscopes of high grade, cameras, culture and sterilizing ovens, and all the apparatus necessary for work in pathology, bacteriology, and microphotography.
As an additional aid in teaching, the college possesses a museum especially rich in birds, eggs, and shells, but containing many other zoological specimens. It posseses besides a considerable herbarium, mainly illustrating the local flora.
EAST LAKE, ALA.
Biology is begun in the junior year, and attention is given first to physiology, following which are zoology and botany. Daily exercises are held in which instruction is given both by text-book and lectures. These are illustrated by whatever objects are available. No laboratory is provided, but probably will be in the near future. For admission to the freshman class no knowledge of science is required, there being few, if any, preparatory schools in the State that furnish acceptable courses in science.
Four different courses of study are pursued, with slightly different requirements for entrance. Sudents entering the classical course are not subject to examination in any scientific subjects. Those applying for the philosophical course are examined in zoology, botany, and