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Candidates for admission to the scientific course are examined in physical geography. Other candidates are not subject to examination in any scientific study.

A course of six lectures in hygiene is given at the beginning of the freshman year, after which are courses in physiology and botany required of students taking the scientific course. These students are also required to follow a practical course in biology, thirty-seven exercises of 2 hours each being devoted to the invertebrates in the sophomore, a like number being devoted to the vertebrates in the junior year. A course of thirty-six lectures in general zoölogy is given in the junior year, and is open to all students. This constitutes the entire biological work required of students in the classical course. A course of fifteen lectures in anthropology is offered in the senior year.

The laboratory is supplied with microscopes and the usual accessories, one being allowed for each two students. No provision is made for work of an advanced character. Attendance is required only of students in the scientific course.

In the Chandler School of Science and Arts candidates for admission are examined in physical geography and physiology. The biological work of the course begins with systematic botany, which is taught during two terms of the freshman year, 4 hours weekly being devoted to recitations and practical exercises. Each student is required to prepare a herbarium of 100 specimens, but this number is often greatly exceeded, owing to the fact that a prize is offered for the best herbarium, and all are exhibited at commencement.

During the first term of the sophomore year a course is given in structural and physiological botany. This occupies 36 hours, and is designed to give the student an outline of the entire vegetable kingdom. A course in zoology, occupying 36 hours, is given in the latter part of the sophomore year. This is accompanied by demonstrations, making use of such illustrative material as may be available.

These courses are required of all students in the school of science. No laboratory work is done, and no provisions are made for it.

Students are admitted to both Dartmouth College and the Chandler School of Science from many of the bigh schools of the State without examination, the necessary scientific preparation being given by such institutions.



The only biological work done is in the senior year, when a short course of lectures is given in botany and zoology preparatory to the course in historical geology. No practical work is done in connection with this.



In the classical course the work in biology begins with a course in physiology, occupying 4 hours per week during the second term of the sophomore year, this course being preceded by a course in chemistry in the freshman year, of which laboratory work forms a required part. In the third term a course in botany is given, consisting of systematic and physiological botany. In the junior class a course of lectures and laboratory work occupying 8 weeks is given on invertebrate zoölogy.

In the scientific course biology begins in the sophomore year with a course in comparative anatomy and dissection, lasting through one term, followed by a laboratory course in cryptogamic botany in the third term of the same year. Courses in general zoölogy and histology, each occupying one term, are offered in the junior year. The former is devoted mainly to invertebrates, beginning with unicellular forms and leading up to the vertebrates. In the latter course opportunities are given for a certain amount of special individual work.

The laboratory is fairly well provided with compound and dissecting microscopes, microtomes, etc., with the usual accessories, and a series of skeletons, casts, slides, etc., illustrating the teaching of physiology. There is no physiological apparatus yet provided, but this need will soon be supplied. For botany a herbarium of considerable size affords the necessary illustrative material.

In the equipment of the laboratory no special arrangement for advanced work has been made and no advanced courses of instruction are offered. A certain amount of research is made, however, by instructors and advanced students, and the results are published in the "Bulletin of the Scientific Laboratories of Denison University." Four volumes of this series have been completed, being made up in part of papers dealing with the local natural history and geology, but also including numerous papers of general interest.

Students completing the course at Granville Academy are passed into the college without examination. The science there taught includes elementary physics, chemistry, physiology, and botany. Students coming from other institutions must be examined on the same subjects.


Students applying for admission are expected to have an elementary knowledge of physiology and physics. Those who apply for the degree of bachelor of science may, instead of German, offer two scientific subjects, botany and zoölogy among others, only an elementary knowledge being expected.

In the arrangement of courses leading to degrees the four-class plan is followed, though the studies for each year are not strictly prescribed.

The degrees offered are bachelor of arts, bachelor of science, and bachelor of philosophy. The studies leading to each are selected by the student under certain general restrictions, it being required that every student finish one major study and one minor study for any degree, in addition to its special requirement. To complete a major study, 4 hours weekly during 2 years are necessary, a minor study occupying the same time during 14 years. Upon the choice of subjects depends the degree received.

Under this plan it is possible for the undergraduate who is so disposed to devote attention to biology during 24 years, or to select portions of the work offered at pleasure. Any one of the biological courses consists of four lectures weekly and 6 hours' laboratory work. A course is first given in general zoölogy, in which attention is first given to the invertebrates, passing then to the vertebrates, and finally to the subject of embryology. As a natural sequence to this is a course lasting through one year, in which the subjects of mammalian anatomy, physiology, and histology are considered. To students who have completed these courses opportunities are afforded to follow more advanced courses in physiology, embryology, vertebrate anatomy, and ichthyology. Students who so desire may elect botany as a part of either the major or minor course, devoting attention first to structural and systematic botany, and during a succeeding semester pursuing the study of vegetable physiology.

These are offered as undergraduate courses, and it is for these especially that the department is equipped. Opportunities for graduate work are afforded in addition, schemes being arranged for each student in accordance with his own special tastes.

The laboratory contains thirty-seven compound microscopes, and a sufficient number of microtomes and other pieces of apparatus. For physiological work considerable provision has been made, and there is abundant apparatus for the study of muscle and nerve physiology, as well as the physiology of the heart and special senses. In addition there is the usual recording and time-marking apparatus. For use in the anatomical courses there are abundant models and skeletons, as well as dissecting and injecting apparatus.

The museum is especially rich in its collections of fishes, but includes also many insects and birds, as well as a general collection of invertebrates. Among the botanical collection may be mentioned a set of the plants of Indiana, and a set of De Thurmen's Mycotheca universalis.


Students applying for admission are required to pass satisfactory examinations in physiology and botany. Those coming from a number of approved high schools are admitted without examination, the necessary scientific instructions being given by most of the schools of the State.

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The introduction to scientific work in the college course is furnished by chemistry, which comes in the second term of the freshman year, followed in the third term by a course in general biology. To this course 10 hours weekly are given, there being one lecture and one recitation per week, the rest of the time being given to laboratory work. This course consists mainly of cryptogamic botany, which is begun with a study of the simplest forms, continuing through representatives of intermediate groups up to the phanerogams. A course of twenty lectures on comparative anatomy is given to the sophomore class. These lectures have special reference to subsequent work in geology, and are fully illustrated by abundant specimens.

An additional course in biology may be elected in the junior year, 10 hours weekly being given to it, as in the freshman class. In this course a certain amount of latitude is allowed, students selecting at will special lines of work in either botany or zoölogy.

The arrangements for laboratory work are ample. Special rooms are provided for advanced work, and the general laboratory is well stocked with the usual apparatus, chemicals, etc., needed in connection with general work in biology.

The museum consists of a considerable number of skeletons, more than 200 stuffed birds and other animals, about 600 species of shells, and the same number of corals.


A course in general biology is given in the sophomore year during two terms, followed by a course in botany in the third. In addition, there is required of scientific students a course in vertebrate anatomy, running through the entire sophomore year. Botany and zoölogy are elective through the junior year.

For entrance, an elementary knowledge of physics, zoology, botany, and physiology is required. This instruction is provided by the preparatory department of Franklin College, from which most of the collegiate students come. The preparatory course in zoology is mainly limited to the invertebrates, the sophomore course being devoted to a practical study of the vertebrates.

The botanical work of the preparatory course is devoted to the structure and classification of flowering plants. During the sophomore year the student is familiarized with some of the more common cryptogams, and is also required to prepare a herbarium of not less than 50 species. The general biology course in the sophomore year consists of a study of numerous selected types, both animal and vegetable, preliminary to the more special courses in zoölogy and botany offered in the junior year. These courses consist mainly of practical work, 6 hours weekly being used for that purpose.

Franklin College possesses no biological museum, and has but an ordinary equipment of microscopes and laboratory appliances.



Biology is begun in the sophomore year, zoölogy being first taken up, afterwards botany. Both of these courses are largely practical, 4 hours weekly being given to lectures and laboratory work. The work in zoology is the study principally of common animals taken up in any order that may be convenient. The botanical work consists of plant analysis and vegetable histology. During the entire junior year there is one weekly practical exercise in animal histology, and during the senior year embryology is studied in the same way.

The arrangements for laboratory work are primitive, there being merely appliances for the ordinary microscopic work. The college possesses a valuable herbarium, containing about 6,000 species of the phænogams and vascular cryptogams of the eastern United States.

No knowledge of any scientific study is required of applicants for admission to the freshman class of Franklin and Marshall College, and no science precedes biology in the college course except an introductory course in chemistry continuing through one term of the freshman year.


No entrance examinations are provided, and all the degrees are conferred upon the completion of elective courses.

The biological course begins with a series of recitations in general zoology, giving attention to the general properties of living matter, and leading up through a series of types to the vertebrates, after which the subject of classification is taken up. A course of lectures is then given in anatomy and hygiene, followed by a course in human physiology. In this are considered the general structure and mechanism of the body, and such questions as the composition and value of foods, exercise, the preservation of health, etc.

There are no laboratory facilities, a small cabinet of shells, reptiles, birds, etc., being the only aid in illustrating the subject.



For admission to the freshman class no science is required. The biological work of the college consists of physiology, zoölogy, and botany, the whole occupying less than 1 year. In the classical course this is in the senior year, physiology and zoology occupying the first term, and botany part of the second. These are preceded by chemistry, which occupies one term of the sophomore year. In the scientific course physiology and zoölogy are studied by second-year

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