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The most direct successor of the Penikese laboratory is the private laboratory of Prof. Alexander Agassiz at Newport. While this build ing is constructed on a much smaller scale than that at Penikese and is open only to a limited number of workers, yet it is prominent for the elegance of its appointments and its conveniences for work.
The first laboratory for seaside study established in this country after the abandonment of Penikese was maintained by the Peabody Academy of Sciences, under the guidance of Professor Packard, with the coöperation of Professor Kingsley and others. This laboratory was for elementary instruction rather than research, and remained in existence only from 1876 to 1881.
In 1878 the trustees of the Johns Hopkins University made an appropriation to allow a party of workers to spend some time in seaside study. The party was under the guidance of Dr. W. K. Brooks, who had himself been a pupil of Agassiz and a member of the Penikese laboratory. The location selected was at the lower part of the Chesapeake Bay, from which the name Chesapeake Zoological Laboratory was chosen. No permanent buildings were erected, as it was intended, if possible, to change the location from year to year; but an outfit of boats and collecting apparatus was provided. The summers of 1878 and 1879 were spent about the lower part of Chesapeake Bay at Crisfield, Md., and Fort Wool, Va., at which places special attention was given to the development of the oyster.
At the opening of the third season, in 1880, the need was felt of a locality that would offer a greater variety of objects for study, and accordingly the summers of 1880–82 were spent at Beaufort, N. C. This locality proved especially favorable, since sand bars, mud flats, salt marshes, and land-locked salt water, within easy reach, gave a large variety of different rare forms, and there was also abundant ocean dredging. A sufficient appropriation was made in 1880 to purchase a steam launch and a sloop, which put the workers in a position to take every advantage of their opportunities.
In 1883 a special study of oyster beds made a return to the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay necessary, and that season was spent at Hampton, Va., but the following two seasons were again spent at Beaufort.
In 1886 the need of a more southern location was felt, and the Bahama Islands seemed to offer an inviting field. The summer of 1886 was therefore spent at Green Turtle Cay, and the following summer at Nassau, New Providence.
Financial difficulties temporarily stopped the work of the laboratory, but it is announced that it will be reopened in the summer of 1891.*
It is difficult to summarize the work of this laboratory, and none the less so to overestimate its importance. It enjoys the distinction of
* Shortly after the above was written, Kingston, Jamaica, was chosen as a suitable locality, and a party of advanced workers, numbering about 14 in all, were present from May until September.-Sept. 21,
being the first marine laboratory ever carried successfully into operation in this country, and its work was entirely original research. The character of work done differed from year to year, according to the facilities which the different localities offered; but in general it may be said that embryology received most attention, while considerably less was devoted to the discovery and description of new species. The methods employed, as well as the new facilities enjoyed, made it possible to apply effective means of solution to many problems previously obscure, as well as opening many questions in regard to which nothing had been done.
Of the lasting value of the work it is perhaps too early to speak, but the fact that over one hundred papers, based upon work there performed, have readily found publication in the best journals of this country and Europe, as well as the fact that much of the work has already found its way into standard text-books, gives strong testimony to its value.
The Chesapeake Zoological Laboratory may be regarded as the successor of the Penikese laboratory to the extent that its aims are the same, but it differed in not being generally open to the workers of the country. Arrangements were not made for large numbers, and those who were present were mainly students of the Johns Hopkins University. During the 9 years that this laboratory remained in existence, there were in all fifty investigators present, and the average length of each session was nearly 2 months.
The need was felt, especially in that portion of the eountry where Agassiz's influence was more directly exerted, of establishing a laboratory on a larger scale and open to a larger number of workers, and the first step taken in this direction was the founding of a laboratory by the Boston Society of Natural History. In their report for 1881 these words occur:
It has been considered desirable to found a summer laboratory sufficient to supply the needs of a class of persons who have begun to work practically under our direction, but have hitherto had no convenient means for pursuing their studies on the seashore.
We are sure that such a laboratory is needed for a limited number of persons, such as our own pupils in natural history, and some of the teachers of the Boston public schools, about a dozen in all, but we are not sure of any real demand outside of these.
Arrangements for laboratory work were speedily made at Annisquam, Mass. Boats and appliances for collecting were at once provided, and in the spring of 1881 a circular was issued announcing the opening of the new laboratory. From this the following extracts are taken:
The liberality and cooperation of the Woman's Educational Association enable the Boston Society of Natural History to announce that a seaside laboratory, under the direction of the curator (Prof. Alpheus Hyatt), and capable of accommodating a limited number of students, will be open at Annisquam, Mass., from June 5 to September 15.
The purpose of this laboratory is to afford opportunities for the study and observation of the development, anatomy, and habits of common types of marine animals,
under suitable direction and advice. There will therefore bè no attempt during thé coming summer to give any stated course of instruction or lectures.
It is believed that such a laboratory will meet the wants of a number of students, teachers, and others who have already made a beginning in the study of natural history.
Twenty-two persons were attracted to the Annisquam laboratory during its first season. Professor Hyatt, in his report for 1882, remarks as follows:
The great need of an institution for teaching field work can not be properly estimated by the number of those who are attracted by the opening of such opportunities for study. The mental condition of those who attend, and what it has done for them, and the sphere of influence which it reaches through them, are the only true standards by which its present and future usefulness can be properly measured. Nearly all the pupils were persons who could be termed “well educated;” nevertheless they were, with the exception of some who had already worked in the laboratory or field, entirely unable to obtain knowledge with their wn eyes and hands, and had even acquired a notion that this was not possible for anybody except the trained scientist. Several of these teachers, after their work was finished, expressed their gratefulness for the new powers the course had developed in themselves, and the fascinating pleasure they had experienced in learning to use their own eyes and hands in the study of things hitherto unapproachable for their uncultivated senses except through the deceptive mediation of books. When it is remembered that these teachers influence and mold the minds of thousands of young persons it is at the same time proved that what this laboratory has done and can do is not to be estimated by the number of its own pupils.
The success of the undertaking seemed assured, and arrangements were made for its continuance during the 5 years following. The number of students fluctuated greatly, falling to ten in the third year and running up in the sixth year to twenty-six.
During these 6 years the laboratory was carried on jointly by the Boston Society of Natural History and the Woman's Educational Association, of Boston. It has been the policy of both of these associations to originate new enterprises, but to turn them over when well started into other hands. It seemed in 1887 that the time had come when the maintenance of the laboratory should be put on a firmer basis. It had been supported long enough to demonstrate its practicability and usefulness. The demands upon it had increased. It was no longer an experiment. The associations believed that a permanent organization should be effected, the working facilities increased, and the whole established on a larger scale. Moreover, it seemed that something more might be done to give the laboratory a wider sphere of usefulness in advancing knowledge of marine life. Great as was its work in teaching, it seemed to depend for its support upon a circle of people too small for the extent of its benefits. It seemed desirable that a change should come which would lead to a more widespread interest in the laboratory, and bring together more investigators.
The Marine Biological Laboratory, which is elsewhere mentioned, was the result of this movement.
While space will permit but a brief account of this laboratory, its
history, development, aims, etc., it may be said that the one point which distinguished it from the Annisquam laboratory was the promi. nence given to research. As is elsewhere stated, students are received, but from the outset there has been a settled determination to so adjust the claims of each as to secure the greatest amount of efficiency and do most to advance science. The organization was therefore effected so as to secure a permanent staff of investigators, who would always be present, increasing knowledge by their own work, and by their example stimulating others to follow. Moreover, the principle was thoroughly recognized that the best investigation is prompted by the work of teaching. The best investigator is often the best teacher, but the work of teaching reacts upon the work of investigation, influencing it for the better.
The experience of the laboratory shows that these points, which had previously been carefully considered, were well taken. Various means were resorted to for providing funds, and in March, 1888, the laboratory was incorporated.
Wood's Holl was chosen as a locality because of its convenience, accessibility, and the variety of its land and marine flora and fauna. The building was at once begun, and finished in time for work during the summer. Circulars could not be issued until after most of the colleges had disbanded for the summer, and yet during the first season seven investigators and eight students were attracted to the laboratory.
In subsequent years the growth has been a steady one. The number of workers has greatly increased, and even now, when only its third season has been passed, it is stated that the space is insufficient to meet the demands upon it; the facilities for collecting are too small, and the staff of instructors is not large enough for their classes. Its usefulness is now established, and the time is ripe for it. To it in great measure the country must look for the advancement of biology. Let us hope that its trustees, all of whom are working biologists, may be successful in placing the laboratory upon such a financial basis that its full possibilities for usefulness may be realized.
TABLE 1.-Showing statistics bearing upon biological teaching in colleges.
NOTE.-In order to give as accurate a basis of comparison as possible, the enumerations here given include only the faculties and students in the regular collegiate courses; all those connected with professional schools being excluded. In most cases the statistics have been compiled from catalogues for 1889-90. In the class of institutions marked with an asterisk earlier catalogues were used.
F. H. Herrick, Ph. D., instructor in biology
atomy, and zoölogy.
instructor in biology.
M. D., professor of cryptogamic botany; E. L. Mark, Ph. D., pro
fessor of anatomy.
Name of college.
College Springs, Iowa
Rock Island, ni.
Providence, R. I.
Bryn Mawr, Pa.
Hamilton, N. Y
Fort Collins, Colo.
New York, N. Y.
Ithaca, N. Y
Hanover, N. H.
Davidson College, N. C.
Greenville, S. C.
Haverford College, Pa