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to attend to zoology for one term, giving 4 hours weekly to a series of lectures and practical exercises with specimens. Sophomores in the scientific and English courses are further required to take a course in biology, to which 3 hours weekly are devoted during one term.

In the junior and senior classes the studies are almost entirely elective, a short course in chemistry being the only scientific work required. In these classes a course in microscopy is first offered as a preliminary to the more special work. In this course the student spends 6 hours weekly for one term in learning the technique of the microscope, and the methods of preparation and mounting of objects for microscopic study. A course in general biology is offered, consisting of 6 hours laboratory work each week for one term. In this course, low forms of life, both animal and vegetable, are dissected. Two courses follow this, one in animal biology, the other in vegetable. Both are laboratory courses, and the same time, 6 hours per week, is given to each. The work cousists in the minute examination of a series of animal and vegetable forms. Students are required to collect their own material as far as possible, make their studies from the objects themselves, make abundant notes and drawings during the progress of their work, and when this work is completed they are required to submit written reports containing the results.

A “research class” is formed which meets once weekly for the discussion of current biological literature and the consideration of special topics. Attendance upon this course is limited to those who show special proficiency in biological work. Special laboratory work may also be planned for such students.

Special emphasis is laid upon the general biology course. In it the student is brought in contact with the objects themselves, beginning with simple forms and passing on to more complex. Brief directions for study are furnished, but the information sought must be gotten by the student himself from the objects.

The laboratory contains abundant tables for all students, and microscopes in sufficient number for each student to have one for his own use. There are, in addition, abundant appliances, and these are rapidly

, increasing

Albion College admits students from many of the high schools of the State without examination. In these schools the scientific work done approximately equals that of the preparatory department of the college.




Three courses of study are provided, all of which lead to the degree of bachelor of arts. An elementary knowledge of physiology, physics, and botany is required of all candidates for admission to these courses.

The college work in biology begins in the freshman class, where the work for all courses consists of two terms in zoology and one term in botany, 5 hours weekly being devoted to each. In the sophomore year biology is only required of students taking a scientific course. Sueh students spend the first term in more advanced work in botany, the second in the practical study of comparative anatomy, in general microscopic work, and histology.

No scientific courses precede biology, chemistry not being taken up until the sophomore year, while physics and geology come in the junior and senior, respectively.

Practical laboratory work is not made a required part of the course, but opportunities for such work are offered to students who care to avail themselves of them. Botany is taught by a class-room drill in which the drawing and analysis of wild flowers is required. Each student is also required to prepare a herbarium from the local flora.

A post-graduate course in natural history is offered, in which the second year is devoted to botany and the third to zoology. In this course opportunities are afforded for special study of the structure, physiology, and distribution of plants, and a similar study of special groups of animals.

The laboratory facilities are suited only for elementary work. One well-lighted room is fitted with tables, cases, etc., and the equipment consists of microscopes and accessories. No provisions are made for advanced research.

The museum consists of a collection of about 3,000 species of insects, 1,000 specimens of birds, reptiles, fish, and marine animals, and more than 6,000 specimens of shells, all arranged and classified.

Allegheny College has its own preparatory department, from which students are admitted to college on certificate. Most of the schools of the State furnish adequate preparation in science.



The work in biology is all elective. It begins with a course in phænogamic botany in the third term of the sophomore year. This occupies 4 hours weekly, and about one-third of the time is devoted to field and laboratory work. In the junior year two terms are devoted to invertebrate zoology and the third to cryptogamic botany. To each of these 4 hours weekly are devoted, and one-third to one-half of the time is given to laboratory work. The senior year is devoted to the comparative anatomy and systematic relations of the vertebrates, short courses being also given in embryology and histology.

Laboratory work is required of all students taking any of these courses. The laboratory is supplied with microscopes and all the appliances needed in undergraduate work, no provision being made for research. For aiding the work of instruction there is a natural history collection of

a considerable size. It contains representatives of all the great groups of

animals and plants, as well as numerous models and skeletons. The
most striking feature is the collection of about 600 birds made by Au-
dubon, many of which are the type specimens.

For admission to the freshman class no knowledge of any scientific
subject is required.


An elementary knowledge of physiology is required of all candidates
for admission to the freshman class. This is provided for in the pre-
paratory department as well as in the Amitonian Academy and other
schools of the State.

The scientific work of the college begins with a course in geology in
the third term of the sophomore year. In the junior class general bi-

ology is taught in the first term, followed by zoology in the second and
botany in the third. During the junior year advanced physiology is
also offered as an elective.

In connection with these courses is a considerable amount of practi-
cal work. During the entire junior year, 5 hours weekly are devoted
to lectures or recitations and 6 hours to laboratory work.

The general biology course consists of the examination of a series of plants and animals, the student being required to observe for himself and make written reports on his observations. The work in zoölogy is so designed as to give the student an accurate knowledge of a few typical forms, their structure, development, and life history, and upon this basis is presented the classification of animals. By means of the practical work the student gains considerable technical knowledge, but, what is vastly more important, has his powers of observation, comparison, and generalization quickened. Botany is taught in the same general manner as zoology. Attention is mainly given to flowering plants, the student dividing his time between vegetable morphology and physiology. Each student is required to determine 20 species of flowering plants, after which a limited number of cryptogams are studied in the same way.



In the eight courses of study which this institution provides, biology does not occupy a very prominent place, being in most of them confined to the subfreshman class. In this class the requirements are nearly uniform in all courses, consisting of elementary zoology, to which is devoted 1 hour per week during one term, and elementary botany and physiology, to which 2 hours per week are devoted during the two remaining terms. No more than this is required except in the case of students taking agricultural and scientific courses. In the former, physiology, botany, and zoology are taken up in the freshman class in

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the order indicated, 5 hours weekly during one term being devoted to each. In the sophomore year structural botany is studied for one term, followed by a course in entomology, each course occupying 2 hours per week. The requirements in the B. S. course are the same as in the agricultural with this addition, that a course in advanced biology occupying 4 hours weekly during two terms is offered as an elective to senior students.

The courses are largely conducted by means of text-books, and while some laboratory facilities are provided, attendance upon the laboratory is required only in the sophomore class. No special provisions are made for advanced work either in the arrangement of courses or in laboratory equipment.

The university possesses a herbarium containing more than 2,500 specimens of the plants of Arkansas; and other extensive collections are in progress. It possesses also about 500 zoological specimens. .




As a preliminary to the work of the college there are offered, in the last two years of the preparatory department, courses in human physi. ology, botany, and zoology. The botanical study is limited to the examination of flowering plants, a series of wild and greenhouse specimens being employed to illustrate the terms used in descriptive botany and to familiarize the student with the differences of structure in the larger divisions of flowering plants. During the spring term 4 hours weekly are devoted to the analysis of flowers, one lecture each week being given to the subjects of economic botany and distribution of plants. Each student is required to prepare a herbarium consisting of 75 speçimens of wild plants.

In the scientific course attention is given to cryptogamic botany and vegetable histology. This is carried over into the freshman class of the college course, and consists of a thorough examination of a series of typical plants, one of each kind being dissected.

The preparatory course in zoology consists of a practical study of selected animal types, thus furnishing the basis for a more extended course in systematic zoology. The college work in zoology is limited to one term in the junior year, which is devoted to the study of conchology, 2 hours weekly being devoted to lectures and 3 to practical work, as in the botanical course. The laboratory has been recently

. fitted up. It is arranged with special reference to large classes of beginners, and is provided with twelve microscopes and accessories; also dissecting instruments in sufficient number. No provision is made for advanced research.

Augustana College possesses a good museum, well arranged and conyepient for teaching. It is especially rich in shells.

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The preparatory and collegiate departments are under the same management, and their courses are in harmony with one another. No previous training in any branch of science is necessary to enter the preparatory department. Most of the collegiate students receive their preliminary training here.



The biological work of this institution begins in the freshman year with a course in general biology, consisting of laboratory work occupying 8 hours weekly during two terms. The third term is devoted to botany, the work occupying 15 hours per week. This time is in part devoted to systematic botany, but vegetable physiology and cryptogamic botany also receive attention. The laboratory work greatly predominates over lectures, these being intended merely to supplement and systematize the knowledge gained in practical study. During the first term of the sophomore year botany is continued, 12 hours weekly being given to the study of special groups of plants, both cryptogams and phænogams, attention being also given to vegetable histology.

Zoology is taken up in the second term of the sophomore year and continues through the third. This consists of laboratory work supple

. mented by lectures and recitations. Additional work in either botany or zoology may be undertaken by students who are qualified to take up special work of an advanced character.

The laboratory is not as fully equipped as is desirable. It contains a number of microscopes of good quality, but little else. A new building is in course of erection, and when finished will be equipped with reference to advanced as well as elementary work. Laboratory work is now required of all students taking the general biology course, while science students must devote two terms to laboratory work subsequent to this time. They may at their pleasure devote both terms to either botany or zoology, or may combine them, working half the full time in each.

For admission to the freshman class the student must stand examinations in physics, chemistry, and physical geography and botany, including a knowledge of the principal flowering plants. · The necessary preliminary instruction is furnished by the schools in five or six of the leading cities of the State, but students are not admitted upon certificates from these schools.

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RUSSELLVILLE, Ky. The work in biology is here limited to a course of recitations in comparative zoölogy illustrated by a few specimens. This course continues through the second half of the freshman year, but is only required of students taking a scientific course. Five hours weekly are devoted to this work.

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