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of freshmen in the scientific course, and elective to classical sophomores. The work consists of text-book exercises, supplemented by lectures and practical work. During the latter part of the course there is practical work only.
A course in physiology, occupying 3 hours weekly during the first term and 2 during the second, is required of scientific sophomores and classical juniors. In this course instruction is given mainly by lectures, accompanied by demonstrations. The course aims at giving the student a general knowledge of the functions of the various organs of the body under normal conditions.
A course in zoölogy, elective to classical juniors and scientific sophomores, is given, occupying 5 hours fortnightly during the year. In this course attention is paid to the broad features and general laws governing living things, rather than systematic work. A number of animal forms are studied, both in relation to their adult form and development.
A laboratory course in practical biology is offered to a limited number of students who are properly qualified. This course may be varied very widely to suit individual cases. Special attention may be paid to physiology, histology, and mammalian dissection, as is recommended for medical students, or a more general course may be followed. A course occupying 2 years is planned, consisting in the examination of typical members of the animal and vegetable kingdoms. The second year of this course is devoted to experimental physiology, and to histology, bacteriology, embryology, and mammalian anatomy. In this work at least 13 hours a fortnight are necessary.
The laboratory is at present capable of accommodating about fifteen students, and is equipped with microscopes and other apparatus necessary in elementary work. It contains also apparatus necessary for investigations upon bacteria. A considerable quantity of apparatus for advanced physiological work has recently been ordered, and it is intended to increase the laboratory accominodations accordingly, as well as add to the courses mentioned above a special course in experimental physiology.
The museum of natural history contains considerable botanical and zoölogical collections. The herbarium contains about 10,600 plants, while there are in addition 300 specimens of wood and 600 miscellaneous specimens. It includes nearly the entire flora of New England, as well as many specimens from other localities. The zoological collections number about 13,000 species. It is especially rich in the vertebrates of North America, the marine invertebrates of New England, and the mollusks generally, containing of the latter class 90,000 shells and 4,000 preserved specimens.
WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY.
MORGANTOWN, W. VA.
The regular course of instruction in biology begins in the third year, though special students if qualified may begin in the first year. Botany and chemistry are required for entrance to the freshman class, and also required of special students wishing to prosecute biological studies. Zoology occupies two terms, and attention is mainly given to the vertebrates. Eachi student is required to prepare the skeletons of 5 vertebrate types, and make a general study of their internal organs and systematic relations. Each student is also required to take a course in histology accupying about 6 weeks. Training is given in methods, and the student then proceeds to the examination of tissues, lectures being previously given upon the tissues under consideration.
Structural botany is considered during two terms, and is entirely practical work. The various tissues of higher plants are made the objects of study, after which bacteria are taken up.
Human anatomy runs through the entire second year, the course consisting of five weekly lectures. Students are required to dissect an entire human body. Students studying for a degree in science or arts are exempt from the practical work.
No laboratory equipment is provided by the university, students being required to furnish their own microscopes and outfits.
For admission to the freshman class no knowledge of science is required.
Biology is taken up in the second term of the sophomore year and continues to the end of the year. This course, which is required of all students, consists of elementary biology with zoology and botany. In connection with this no practical work is required save exercises in plant analysis.
In the junior and senior years nearly all of the scientific courses are elective. The junior course comprises a study of plants and animals from a physiological as well as anatomical standpoint, text-books being used in part. In this work the higher and better known forms are first taken up, after which the more primitive forms are considered. Systematic work forms a part of the course, but the primary aim is to bring the student into direct contact with nature. In the senior year comparative zoology is continued. A practical study is made of the embryology of birds and amphibia, and a course is also given in animal histology. Short lecture courses are also given on topics of general interest. Further instruction of a more advanced nature is given to stu
dents who are properly qualified along the lines indicated by the elective courses. ·As an aid in this work, an association of students is formed for the reading and discussion of current journals. In this connection the “Lyceum of Natural History" should be mentioned. For 50 years past this has in various ways promoted the study of natural history, more especially by forming expeditions to regions of scientific interest.
A room 60 by 35 feet has recently been equipped as a biological laboratory. It is conveniently arranged, well lighted and heated, and supplied with microscopes, microtomes, incubators, aquaria, etc. Six hours weekly are spent in laboratory work by students taking the elective courses, while those doing the advanced work spend as much time as the work may require. A special fund has been provided for a scientific expedition every fourth year. Arrangements have also been made by which one table at the marine biological laboratory is open to students who are properly qualified.
NEW HAVEN, CONN.
The requirements for admission to the freshman class include no knowledge of science. As the courses are at present arranged, no scientific subjects are begun until the junior year. To supplement this it is strongly recommended that students should include in their preparation for college some of the natural sciences and chemistry.
In the junior and senior years all the scientific courses are elective. A course in physiology, occupying 1 hour weekly through the year, is given to juniors, and during the second term of this year a course in botany is conducted, occupying 2 hours weekly. To students who have completed the work in physiology, as well as an experimental course in chemistry, there is open a course in comparative anatomy and histology, occupying one term of the senior year. This consists of practical work only, to which a minimum of 8 hours per week is given. The time is devoted to microscopic work and dissecting, with special reference to the rudiments of biology and the morphology of animal tissues. Seniors, who so desire, may follow two advanced courses. One of these, open only to a small number who have taken the course in botany, is devoted to the microscopic study of vegetable tissues, with special reference to ferns and mosses. This occupies 2 hours weekly
2 during the first term. As a continuation of the course in comparative anatomy, a course is also open to seniors in physiological chemistry. This consists of practical work devoted to the study of various animal tissues, the chemistry of digestion, nutrition, etc.
In the Sheffield Scientific School several courses are offered leading to the degree of bachelor of science. Two of these may be described in detail, one being a general natural-history course, while the other is preparatory to medicine. In both of these the work of the freshman and sophomore classes is the same, physics and chemistry being required. The studies peculiar to these courses begin in the junior year, botany being first taken up. In both courses this continues through
. the senior year, occupying from 2 to 6 hours weekly. Systematic botany is first considered, the object being to train students in manipulation and to enable them to recognize the chief natural orders, as well as determine the more common species. The botanical work of the senior year is entirely practical, and consists at first of a microscopic study of vegetable tissues and floral organs, after which attention is given to lower groups, as ferns, mosses, and algæ. Those who wish to carry their studies further may pursue advanced courses devoted to special groups of plants.
In the second term of the junior year of both courses embryology is presented, while in the preliminary medical course comparative anatomy and histology are studied. There are 18 hours laboratory work and one lecture weekly in this course. The special object sought in this course is the manual and mental training of the student in the methods of investigation by which the facts and principles of these sciences have been established. The work consists mainly of micro
. scopic work and dissecting.
In the natural-history course zoology is taken up in the second term of the junior year and continued through the senior. In this from 6 to 12 hours are devoted to laboratory work, while during about half the senior year there are two weekly lectures. The laboratory work includes dissecting and microscopic study, as well as systematic work in zoölogy.
In the senior year of the preliminary medical course there is a shorter course in zoology, consisting of two lectures weekly, and there is in addition a course in physiological chemistry. This course extends through the senior year, and consists mainly of laboratory work. In it attention is first devoted to the albuminous bodies and the composition of the various tissues of the body. The detection of poisons and their action upon the tissues of the body is also considered.
The Sheffield Scientific School also offers facilities for post-graduate study in the departments of botany, zoology, comparative anatomy, and physiological chemistry. None of these are rigidly fixed, but may be suited to the individual needs and wishes of the student.
Separate laboratories are provided for each of these departments, and each is fully equipped.
The Peabody Museum of Natural History contains, in addition to large numbers of fossils, a zoological collection of large size and great value. It contains all the vertebrates found in New England, a large number of vertebrate skeletons, and in addition extensive collections of marine forms from the highest to the lowest. The marine invertebrates of the New England coast are nearly all represented, and there are also many special collections from various parts of the world.
No course in biology is offered in the following-named institutions:
Emory College, Oxford, Ga.