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to be avoided, whatever gain they may be attended with provided we follow the custom of the trade; for, to gain money, we must not lose our souls. There are yet others which many pursue with perfect innocence, without hurting either their body or mind; and yet, perhaps, you cannot: Either they may entangle you in that company which would destroy your soul; and by repeated experiments it may appear that you cannot separate the one from the other ; or there may be an idiosyncrasy,—a peculiarity in your constitution of soul, (as there is in the bodily constitution of many,) by reason whereof that employment is deadly to you, which another may safely follow. So I am convinced, from many experiments, I could not study, to any degree of perfection, either mathematics, arithmetic, or algebra, without being a Deist, if not an Atheist : And yet others may study them all their lives without sustaining any inconvenience. None, therefore, can here determine for another ; but every man must judge for himself, and abstain from whatever he in particular finds to be hurtful to his soul.
3. We are, Thirdly, to gain all we can, without hurting our neighbour. But this we may not, cannot do, if we love our neighbour as ourselves. We cannot, if we love every one as ourselves, hurt any one in his substance.
any one in his substance. We cannot devour the increase of his lands, and perhaps the lands and houses themselves, by gaming, by over-grown bills, (whether on account of physic, or law, or any thing else,) or by requiring or taking such interest as even the laws of our country forbid. Hereby all pawn broking is excluded : Seeing, whatever good we might do thereby, all unprejudiced men see with grief to be abundantly over-balanced by the evil. And if it were otherwise, yet we are not allowed to “ do evil that good may come. We cannot, consistent with brotherly love, sell our goods below the market-price ; we cannot study to ruin our neighbour's trade, in order to advance our own ; much less can we entice away, or receive, any of his servants or workmen whom he has need of. None can gain by swallowing up his neighbour's substance, without gaining the damnation of hell !
4. Neither may we gain by hurting our neighbour in his body. Therefore we may not sell any thing which tends to impair health. Such is, eminently, all that liquid fire, commonly called drams, or spirituous liquors. It is true, these may have a place in medicine; they may be of use in some bodily disorders ; although there would rarely be occasion for them, were it not for the unskilfulness of the practitioner. Therefore, such as prepare and sell them only for this end may keep their conscience clear. But who are they? Who prepare them only for this end? Do you know ten such distillers in England ? Then excuse these. But all who sell them in the common way, to any that will buy, are poisoners general. They murder His Majesty's subjects by wholesale, neither does their eye pity or spare. They drive them to hell, like sheep. And what is their gain ? Is it not the blood of these men ? Who then would envy their large estates and sumptuous palaces ? A curse is in the midst of them: The curse of God cleaves to the stones, the timber, the furniture of them! The curse of God is in their gardens, their walks, their groves; a fire that burns to the nethermost hell! Blood, blood is there : The foundation, the floor, the walls, the roof, are stained with blood ! And canst thou hope, O thou man of blood, though thou art “ clothed in scarlet and fine linen, and farest sumptuously every day;" canst thou hope to deliver down thy fields of blood to the third generation ? Not so ; for there is a God in heaven: Therefore, thy name shall soon be rooted out. Like as those whom thou hast destroyed, body and soul, “thy memorial shall perish with thee !"
5. And are not they partakers of the same guilt, though in a lower degree, whether Surgeons, Apothecaries, or Physicians, who play with the lives or health of men, to enlarge their own gain? who purposely lengthen the pain or disease, which they are able to remove speedily? who protract the cure of their patient's body, in order to plunder his substance ? Can any
be clear before God, who does not shorten every disorder as much as he can,” and remove all sickness and pain as soon as he can ?" He cannot : For nothing can be more clear, than that he does not “ love his neighbour as himself;" than that he does not “ do unto others, as he would they should do unto himself.”
6. This is dear-bought gain. And so is whatever is procured by hurting our neighbour in his soul ; by ministering, suppose, either directly or indirectly, to his unchastity, or intemperance; which certainly none can do, who has any fear of God, or any real desire of pleasing Him. It nearly concerns all those to consider this, who have anything to do with taverns, victualling
houses, opera-houses, play-houses, or any other places of public, fashionable diversion. If these profit the souls of men, you are clear ; your employment is good, and your gain innocent; but if they are either sinful in themselves, or natural inlets to sin of various kinds, then, it is to be feared, you have a sad account to make. O beware, lest God say in that day, “ These have perished in their iniquity, but their blood do I require at thy hands !"
7. These cautions and restrictions being observed, it is the bounden duty of all who are engaged in worldly business to observe that first and great rule of Christian wisdom, with respect to money, “Gain all you can." Gain all you can by honest industry. Use all possible diligence in your calling . Lose no time. If you understand yourself, and your relation to God and man, you
you understand your particular calling, as you ought, you will have no time that hangs upon your hands. Every business will afford some employment sufficient for every day and every hour. That wherein you are placed, if you follow it in earnest, will leave you no leisure for silly, unprofitable diversions. You have always something better to do, something that will profit you, more or less. And “whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might." Do it as soon as possible: No delay! No putting off from day to day, or from hour to hour ! Never leave anything till to
morrow, which you can do to-day. And do it as well as possible. Do not sleep or yawn over it : Put your whole strength to the work. Spare no pains. Let nothing be done by halves, or in a slight and careless manner. Let nothing in your business be left undone, if it can be done by labour or patience.
8. Gain all you can, by common sense, by using in your business all the understanding which God has given you. It is amazing to observe, how few do this; how men run on in the same dull track with their forefathers. But whatever they do who know not God, this is no rule for you. It is a shame for a Christian not to improve upon them, in whatever he takes in hand. You should be continually learning, from the experience of others, or from your own experience, reading, and reflection, to do every thing you have to do better to-day than you did yesterday. And see that you practise whatever you learn, that you may make the best of all that is in your hands.
II. 1. Having gained all you can, by honest wisdom, and unwearied diligence, the Second rule of Christian prudence is, “ Save all you can.” Do not throw the precious talent into the sea : Leave that folly to heathen philosophers. Do not throw it away in idle expenses, which is just the same as throwing it into the sea. Expend no part of it merely to gratify the desire of the flesh, the desire of the eye, or the pride of life.
2. Do not waste any part of so precious a talent, merely in gratifying the desires of the flesh; in procuring the pleasures of sense, of whatever kind ; particularly, in enlarging the pleasure of tasting. I do not mean, avoid gluttony and drunkenness only: An honest Heathen would condemn these. But there is a regular, reputable kind of sensuality, an elegant epicurism, which does not immediately disorder the stomach, nor (sensibly at least) impair the understanding; and yet (to mention no other effects of it now) it cannot be maintained without considerable expense. Cut off all this expense ! Despise delicacy and variety, and be content with what plain nature requires.
3. Do not waste any part of so precious a talent, merely in gratifying the desire of the eye, by superfluous or expensive apparel, or by needless ornaments. Waste no part of it in curiously adorning your houses ; in superfluous or expensive furniture ; in costly pictures, painting, gilding, books; in ele. gant rather than useful gardens. Let your neighbours, who know nothing better, do this : “Let the dead bury their dead." But “what is that to thee?” says our Lord : “ Follow thou me.” Are you willing ? Then you are able so to do!
4. Lay out nothing to gratify the pride of life, to gain the admiration or praise of men.
This motive of expense is frequently interwoven with one or both of the former. Men are expensive in diet, or apparel, or furniture, not barely to please their appetite, or to gratify their eye, or their imagination, but their vanity too. “ So long as thou doest well unto thyself, men will speak good of thee.” So long as thou art “ clothed in purple and fine linen, and farest sumptuously every day,” no doubt many will applaud thy elegance of taste, thy generosity and hospitality. But do not buy their applause so dear. Rather be content with the honour that cometh from God.
5. Who would expend anything in gratifying these desires, if he considered, that to gratify them is to increase them ? Nothing can be more certain than this: Daily experience shows, the more they are indulged, they increase the more. Whenever,
therefore, you expend anything to please your taste or other senses, you pay so much for sensuality. When you lay out money to please your eye, you give so much for an increase of curiosity,—for a stronger attachment to these pleasures which perish in the using. While you are purchasing anything which men use to applaud, you are purchasing more vanity. Had you not then enough of vanity, sensuality, curiosity, before ? Was there need of any addition ? And would you pay for it too? What manner of wisdom is this? Would not the literally throwing your money into the sea be a less mischievous folly ?
6. And why should you throw away money upon your children, any more than upon yourself, in delicate food, in gay or costly apparel, in superfluities of any kind ? Why should you purchase for them more pride or lust, more vanity, or foolish and hurtful desires ? They do not want any more; they have enough already; nature has made ample provision for them : Why should you be at farther expense to increase their temptations and snares, and to pierce them through with more sorrows ?
7. Do not leave it to them to throw away. If you have good reason to believe they would waste what is now in your possession, in gratifying, and thereby increasing, the desire of the flesh, the desire of the eye, or the pride of life; at the peril of theirs and your own soul, do not set these traps in their way. Do not offer your sons or your daughters unto Belial, any more than unto Moloch. Have pity upon them, and remove out of their way what you may easily foresee would increase their sins, and consequently plunge them deeper into everlasting perdition ! How amazing then is the infatuation of those parents who think they can never leave their children enough! What! cannot you lea
leave them enough of arrows, firebrands, and death? not enough of foolish and hurtful desires ? not enough of pride, lust, ambition, vanity? not enough of everlasting burnings ? Poor wretch ! thou fearest where no fear is. Surely both thou and they, when ye are lifting up your eyes in hell, will have enough both of “the worm that never dieth," and of “ the fire that never shall be quenched !” 8. “ What then would you do,
? if you had a considerable fortune to leave?” Whether I would do it or no, I know what I ought to do: This will admit of no reasonable question. If I had one child, elder or younger, who knew the value of money, one who, I believed, would put it to
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