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ments has shed unexpected light this branch of literature, and ceron that of philology and history, tain pledges of içs furure progress : and has in return drawn from hem but what chiefly insures irs adbat solid and enighrenedsriticism, vancement, is that your majesty by means of which the science of has resolved tha: it should be admedals thas, within our time, been mitted to collend for the great reduced to a regular system. The decenorial prizes instituted by your Greek and Latin paleographies munificence. It mere to be wished have anained a degree of perfectio literarure might also be indebied to on unkauwn to our predecessors. you for editions of the best orienArchæology, which elucidates mo- ral writers, in urder io render acnuments, has renounced irs chime cessible to the studious youth, the ras, and is become the deposi. Sources of that lirerature which tury, of the faithful interpreter could hitherto have been ap. of the manners, customs, rites, proached bur by very few. events, and arts of antiquity. The Among the essential characters admirable remains of ancient sculp- of true philosophy, as taught by ture which your majesty has Socrates, and the wise men of all already caused 10. be remove ages, we have soughi the role need, and is still about to have cessary to appreciate the meric of removed from the banks of the the labours of which this science Tiber to your new Rome, will eno is the object, and we have had the hance the importance of the sci. good fortune to find, in differenc face of antiquities, and more and countries, writers who preserved more facilitate its progress. An- it in all, irs purity, and rendered cient iconography revived by one is producijve; who have pointed of your looks, will place before out some improvemenis in doc. our eyes the images too long ne- trines conducive to sound inoraliglected, of ihe great men of anti. ty, improvements which console quiry, your ancestors in glory, us for the deviations impuied to and whose sublime and immorial philosophy, but which philosiphy inheritance you have been able to disavows. We have atiempred to conquer and extend.

exhibit a view of the revolucions Oriental literature, which was which it has experienced in Gerbefore so much indebied to France, many, and to present an abstract far from being neglected, has of the services rendered to it by been enriched by some discoveries, the Scorrish school and a considerable number of use. France has furnished us with ful works. A new school esia. two principal results: the lighc blished for teaching the principal thrown on the analysis of the living languages of the cast, ihe ideas and faculries of man, and po session of muliitude of different the history of philosophy, a hisoriental rypes, which places. The rory of which our literature was imperial presses at the head of the hicherto in want. first typographical establishmenis If :he progress inade in the difs in Europe ; a new professorship of ferent sciences within the last Persian, created by your majesty Twenty years, be in a great mea: at ihe college of France ; are din sure due to the many distinguished linguished favours conferred on men in the science of legislation

.. . K?, whom France pósesses; it is nea'a

ly all to be ascribed to the know. ses have been published on diffeledge, to the active foresighe, the rent branches of legislation; some, wisdom, and the unshaken resolu- though few in number, have em. lion of government.

braced the whole if it. The civil The Napoleon code, so worthy and political laws of the Romans of its great name, has been given have been the especial object of va10 France, and offered as a model rious works published in the same to Europe; schools have been countries, and - particularly in formed where great numbers of France, where, a short time ben pupils receive useful lessons ; a fore the revolurion, appeared some code of civil proceedings, and a publications on the laws given by commercial code have been pub. Moses, Zoroaster, Confucius, to lished; a new criminal code is the Hebrews, Persians, Chinese ; preparing, and promises to France and on those which Mahomet af. new benefits. Nevertheless, our terwards gave to the Arabs. civilians have never ceased labour- France has also diffused new light ing for ihe improvement of legise on ihe federal governments of lacion, and some have very useful Greece, so that no part of the ly seconded the profound views of science of laws, ancient or modern the supreme head of the empire. has been neglecied; and as soon as Even at i he time when ihe disor. it was permitted to renew the conder of our laws was at once nexion between legislation and the cause and effece of our public those fundamental principles, from misfortunes," foreigners sought a which it never "deviares without mongst the works previously pub. dánger to the repose and happiness Jished by Frenchmen, principlen of nations, the study was resumed capable of improving legislation; an ardour which daily promises and Germany, so abundant in new success, learned civilians, was not afraid to "Since ihe death of d'Anville, 'translate our books, for the pur. · whose labours nearly fix' the state pose of enriching the legislative of ancient geography, at the time works ordered by its princes. Our which we are now considering, secodes have suddenly given rise 10 veral works published in different an infinire number of commentaries countries, particularly in France. some of which may not be unwor. contributed to its improvement, thy of the approbation of well-in The opinions of the principal geoformed men. The rights of na. graphers of the school of Alexan ture, and the laws of nations, dria, and the whole system of the have likewise been cultivated, and Greeks, have been rescued from some elementary works have been oblivion, and the kind of annihilaadded, " in order to facilitare the rion to which they appeared constudy of them. The grand prin- demned during fifteen centuries. ciples of legislarion and public mo. The development of this system, rals have been discussed in their by giving rise to new ideas, has necessary relations to social order, afforded abundant means of exiendas well as to the closest bonds of ing this species of knowledge so the family and communiiy. necessary to history, as it serves 10

In Germany, as well as in En- derermine the situation of the plagland, and in Italy, several creari- ces, and to circumcribe, with pres

..i sision, the countries which were


the scenes of memorable events. gators, who resorted to those reA great number of the difficulties more regions of commercial pura and uncertainties which obscured poses. ihe greater part of geographical Ancient geography has made discussions, have already been re- some progress; the translation of moved ; and this science, so long Strabo, ordered by your majesty, conjectural, may henceforward and che zeal of those who culrivale aspire to rank among the accurate that science, are pledges of its fusciences.

ture advances. Several craveis shrough Europe, History, the grear instructress of Asia, and Africa, undertaken for mankind, as Cicero calls, it has the purpose of visiting countries perhaps been cultivated by no nabetter known to the ancients than tion so much as by our's; and they were in our time, have none has produced so great a hun: also contributed to extend the ber of historians worthy of being sphere our knowledge of ancient quoted. To find the first link of geography. The glorious expedi- the long chain formed by them, tion of your majesty to Egypr, in we must go back nearly to the oriparticular, has made us acquaint- gin of the monarchy, as far as ed with ihat land of prodigies, Gregory of Tours, who wrote unwhich always revives the most as- der the grandsons of Clovis; and fonishing recollections; and our the last link includes the present geographers will soon connect with time. Italy is indebted to a Frenchibe new map, which they ann man for the first history of Rome xiously expect, all įhe knowledge writeen by a modern ; it was liketransmitted to us by antiquiry res- wise a Frenchman who first acpecring ihat classic country. quainted the English with their

Several parts of Greece, and the own history. The epoch fixed by environs of the Busphorus, have your majesty, was gloriously prebeen surveyed with the greatest pared and opened in France by a care, within about twenty years, history of the private life of the This great operation vill give a Greeks, of their manners, their new interest to, and throw newy learning, their opinions, their light on, the ancient descriprion of philosophy; which has been those shores, The celebrity of translated into all languages and which has been increasing during read Throughout all Europe : buc thirty centuries.

France was soon compelled lore. Piedmoni, the Alps, a great linquish the hope ofieaping the propart of Italy, now better known duce of the soil which she had so Than formerly, have presented nu long and so succesfully cultivated. merous discoveries to chose geogra. History, which is no longer herphers who have occupied themsel self when she ceases to be free, Fes with the state of the countrỳ was, during many years, reduced while under domination of che Ro- to silence; and how could she mans.

hare raised her voice, when liberThe western coasis of a portion sy was repressed in the name of liof Africa, and the geography of berty? She withdrew into neignIndia, rectified in many points, bouring countries ; she inspired have made known to us the princi- Muller; who inspired Mitford ; pal places visited by ancient navis and lent her pen to writers pre


viously accustomed to handle it, misfortunes, has been writren in and who have employed it to ad- a style, and with colours, suitable vantage.

to the subject. The histo:ical and X However, some men of letters political view of Europe, during 1 in France continued in solitude ien years, has been delineared with and silence their studies and as much truch, as elegance and atheir labours; and as soon 88 biliry. The views of The revoluci. 1 circumstances permitied, there ons of this same part of the world, appeared in the Instituse, 'a con- lately published, is a work which is siderable number of notices of it will be useful to read before the manuscripts and memoirs relarive history, and to keep sighi of in to our history of the middle age, reading it. The author has judi. i and to diplomacy. The fourteen ciously avoided the prolixiiy The volume of the Collection of the which some of our historians may : Historians of Frace, has been pub. be justly reproached with : they lished by the order, and under wish to turn all their researches 101 the auspices, of goverment, the come account ; whaiever has cost fifteenth is in the press, as well ihem trouble acquires importance as the fifteenth volume of the col- in their eyes. Our coniempolection of the ordinances of the raries must be in state of mind kings of the third French Dynas- more fit than their predecessors 10, ty. Other works of the same write history. They have witnes. kind have been suspended, and sed so many great subversions, yet wait, it is true, for continua, such great calamilies, such great ting authors; and we must confess actions, co great a man, that whatea to your majesty, though with ever is not truly great, will to grear regret, that we have no ho them appear little. From all the pes that all will find them, unless grand objects which they have one of your powerful looks should undoubtedly learned to see grand. Tevive ihis species of study, by ly; and one who sees thus, will which France had rendered here always express himself with force, į self illustrious during upwards of digniiy, and conciseness. two centuries, and which she now His majesty replied nerly in the , seems to have entire abandoned. following words:

The history of Russia, written Gentlemen, presidents, secreta. by a Frenchman, has been aug- ry, and deputies, of the third class. Inenied and impr.ved in a new e of the instirute : I cake a great indirion. The history of the Ro- terest in the prosperity of the man republic has been treated in sciences, and more particularly in a new point of view; that of the the success of your labours. You Lower Empire has been resumed, may always rely on iny protecii. and is now completing. The uno on. beliled goveruments of its long




ASTER having behared on his that, what he does is good, he is a way to execution in the most great man. He is cloi hed in purstrange and undaunted manner he ple, his instruments of murder are stood up in the cart and spoke as bright and shining, inine was an follows. My friends you as old rusty gun, so much for comsemble to see-Whari-A man parison. Now I would sain know rake a leap into the abyss of death. whai authority there is in scriprure Look and you shall see me go with for a rich man to murder, plunder, as much courage as Curijus the torture, and ravage whole countries Roman, when he leaps into the and what law it is that condemns gulph to save his country from a poor man to death, for killing destruction. What then will you one solitary man, or for stealing a see of me? You say that no man sheep to feed his family. But to without virtue can be courageous. bring the matter closer iq our own You see I am courageous : You'll counity, what difference is there say I have killed a man.- Marlbo- between running in a poor man's tough killed his Thousands and debt ind by the privilege of gold, Alexander bis millions. Marlbo. or any other power, preventing rough and Alexander, and all him from obraining his right, and others who have done the like, are clapping a pistol to the man's famous in history for great men: breast and eaking his purse, Yet but I killed one solitary man : aye, the one shall thereby obtain a coach, rhai's the case, one solitary man. riches, uitles, and honours, and I am only a little murderer, 1 the orher, what a cart and a rope. must be hanged. Marlborough From what I have said my breand Alexander plundered countries thern you may perhaps imagine They were great men. I robbed thai I am hardened, but believe the ale wife, I must be hanged. me I am fully convinced of my Noir my friends I have drawn a folly and acknowledge that the just parallel between iwo of ihe greas: judgement of God has overtaken est men that ever lived and myself, me. burchese were men of former days. I have no hopes but from the Now I'll speak a little of some of merits of my redeemer, who I the present day. How many men trust will have mercy on me, as were lost in Italy and on the Rhine he know's that murder was far during the last war, for serving a from my heart, and what I did king in Poland, Now both sides Tas through rage and passion, could not be in the right, they being provoked therein by ihe dewere great men, bur I killed one ceased. Take warning, my dear solitary man, kam a linile' fellow. cornrades, think, think, whac The king of Spain takes our ships, would I not give that I had lived plunders our inerchants, kills or another life.

AN cortures our men, but what of all

*** One murder makes a villain,
Millions a Hero?
Thus kings are privileged to kill
And numbers sousecrare the crime."

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