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The barbarity of the English, the stupid in this manner of treating it, Danes, and Normans, in destroying and more so, when we conlider that all the monuments of Scotch, Irish, the language of the English, although and Wellb anriquiry, has robbed the long spoken by one of the first and philosopher, if not the divine, of ma. the most learned nations of Europe, Dy a precious light. At all events, to the polish of which Parnell, Brook, this wonderful affinity between Irish, the Sheridans, Burke, Goldsmith, Scychian, Scorch, Carthaginian, Sterne, Swift, O'Leary, and a multiWelih, Hebrew, Syriac, Perlian, tude of other Trilhmen, have contri. Shanscrite, and other ancient dia- . buted fomuch, cannot yet be reduced Jees, is a lrong and interesting proof to any rules of grammar, or spoken or of holy writ; as it goes to prove that written with any ordinary perfpicu. at one time there was a universal lan. ity. Look into an act of parliament, guage. But the use I shall make of where precision is necessary, or into it is, to the w the ignorant and pro- a legai conveyance, and read the voking insulis which the English have wheresoevers and winenio vers that heaped upon the Irish ; not only in abound the he's; the she's and the the tin, es of their own barbariey, but they's ; the any manner of person or fincelecters had made progress among perfons, thing or things, and such parathem. When Queen Elizabeth found. phrases and amplifications, which ne. ed Trinity College, The would have ver could be necesary in a language had an Irish profeffor, but Lord Bur- pofsellisg either concord or inexion: leigh diffuaded her, saying, it was a and the crude origin and construction barbarous language, and repeated il of which, tafte, learning, or genius, liberally some phrase which he pre- has not been able to reform. Indeed, tended was Irish, but which evident. some of the very acts of parliament, ly was nonsense, and perhaps auk- enacting penalties against those that ward enough in his mouth. You may pake Irish, or dwelt amongst the remember it in Hume's History of Irisbry, are such a queer compound England. The English of it, accord- of Danish, Norman hog.latin, and I ing to this historian, is, that “ The don't know what, as to be the most white ox eat the black egg!” biting satires upon the Englifhry, and

Now, upon the same illiberal · those that spake English. For we Scheme, if any Queen, for initance must acknowledge, that whatever our Queen Dido, who speke good Phæ- ancestors, the Irijk, were, in the time nician, wilhed to håve an English pro- of Strongbow, our anceflors, the Eng. feffor, and one of her favourites was lijk, were clumsy enough. - You re. to pronounce to her even in the court collect it was about that time that the lielt manner, " I.ength, breadth, buxu:10.115 Thomas A. Becket was wedih, strength, thickness, thankful. impeached for strewing his floors with Dess," and so forth, would it not shock green rushes, and other fuch effemithe delicate ears of the queen, and nacies; and it is an authentic fact, damn the professor ? Yet it would not that as late as that, our ancestors the be so unfair as to say that “ The white English, fold their children and their ox eat the black egg!”

pregnant wives to our ancestors, the When we coolider that the Irish Irish, for naves. The market was vernacular tongue was to be traced held, where now stands the great cia with little corruption to the higheft ty of Liverpool. Some traces of aptiquity, and identified with holy wive-selling till exist in England. writ, there is fomething contemptibly

(To be continued.) "Oaober, 1810.

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punish and prevent it for the future, OF THE PRESENT , the General represented the cafe to SIR CHARLES ASGILL.

General Clinton, who then comman.

ded, and demanded that the refugee Written by Thomas Paine, in a letter to officer who ordered and attended the

Sir Guy Carleton, then commandling execution, and whose name is Lipthe Britill fortes, employed in Ame pincut, Mould be delivered up as a rica, to 12.ppress the growing spirit

murderer ; and in case of refusal that . of Independence.

the person of some British officer

fhould suffer in his stead. The de'TO SIR GUY CARLETON.

maod, though not refused, bas not been It is the nature of compaffion to complied with ; and the melancholy associate with misfortune ; and I ad- Joc (not by selection, but by casting dress this to you in behalf even of an lots) has fallen upon Captain : sgill, enemy, a captain in the British ser- of the Guard's, who, as I have alrea. vice, now on his way to the head. dy mentioned, is on his way from quarters of the American army, and Lancaster to camp, a martyr to the unfortunately doomed to death for a general wickedness of the cause he crime not his own: A sentence so ex. engaged in, and the ingratitude of traordinary, an execution so repug. those he has served. nant to every human sensation, ought. The first reflection which arifes on never to be told without the circum- this black business is, what sort of Stances which produced it: and as men must Englishmen be, and what

the destined victim is yet in existence, fort of order and discipline do they · and in your hands relt his life or preserve in their armiy, when in the · death, I shall briefly ftate the case immediate place of their head-quar. and the melancholy consequence. ters, and under the eye and nose of

Captain Huddy, of the Jersey mic their commander-in-chief, a prisoner Jitia, was attacked in a small fort on can be taken at pleasure froni his com: Tom's river, by a party of refugees finement, and his death made a matin the British pay and service, was ter of sport. made prisoner together with his com. The hillory of the most favage Inpany, carried to New York and lodg. diaos does not produce instances ex ed in the provost of that city : about acily of this kind. They, at lealt. three weeks after which, he was ta. have a formality in their punishments. ken out of the provost down to the With them it is the horridness of re. water.side, put into a boat and brought venge ; but with your army it is the again upon the Jersey fhore, and there, . ftill greater crime, the horridaess of contrary to the practice of all nations diversion. but savages, was hung upon a tree, The Britisa generals who have and left hanging until found by our succeeded each other, from the time people, who took him down and bu- of General Gage to yourself, have all ried him.

affected to speak in language they The io habitants of that part of tbe have no right to. Io their preclamacountry where the murder was coin. tions, their addreffes, their letters to

mirred, sent a deputation to General General Washington, and their sup· Washington, with a full and certified plications to Coogress (for they de

Hlacement of che fact Struck, as every serve no other name) ibey talk of human breaft mult be, with such bru. British honor, British generosity, and Lith ourrage, and determined both to British clemency, as if those things


were matters of fact; whereas, we nheltered from personal detection.whose eyes are open, who speak the Here the crime is fixed ; and is one fame language wiih yourselves, many of those extraordinary cases which of whom were born on the fame,Spot can neither be denied nor palliated, with you, and who can' no more be and to which the custom of wat does miftaken iô your words than in your not apply : for it never could be supactions, can declare to all the world, posed that such a brutal outrage would that so far as our knowledge goes, ever be committed. It is an original there is not a more detectable cha. in the history of civilized barbarians, racter, nor a Deaner or more barba- and is truly British., tous enemy, than the present British On your part, you are accountable one. Wiib us, you have forfeited all to us for the personal safety of the prerenlions of reputation, and it" je prisoners within your walls. Here only by holding you like a wild beast, can be no miltake; they can neither 'afraid of your keepers, that you can be spies por fu!pected as such ; your be made manageable. But to return security is not endangered, nor your to the point in question.

operations fubjected io miscariage by * Though I can think no man ingo- men immured within a dungeon.cent who has lent his haod to destroy Thiey differ in every circumstance the country which be did not plant, from men in the field, and leave no and to ruin those he could not enllave, pretence for severity of punifhment. yet abstracted from all ideas of right But if co the dismal condition of cap. and wrong on the original question, givity witb you, must be added the Captain" Argill, in the present case, is constant apprehensions of death; if not the guilig man." "I'he villain and to be imprisoned is so nearly to be en. 'the victim are here feparared charac jombed ; and, if after all, che mure ters. You hold the one and we the derers are to be protected, and there other. You disown, or affe&t to dir- by the crime encouraged, wherein do own and reprobate, the condu&t of you differ from Iodiaos, either in con'Lippencut, yei you give him fanétu duct or character ! ary; and by fo doing you as effe&tual. We can have no idea of your ho. ly become the executioner of fgill, nor, or your juftice, in any future as if you put the rope on his neck, transaction of what nature it inay be, and difosffed him from the world. = while you shelter within your lines an Whatever your feelings on this ex. outrageous murderer, and sacrifice in traordinary occasion may be, are belt his stead an officer of your own. If known to yourself. Within the grave you have no regard to us, at least of your own mind lies buried che faie spare the blood which it is your duty of Afgill. He becomes the corpse of to save. Whether the punishment will your will, or the survivor of your jus be greater on him, who, in this case, tice. Deliver up the one and you save innocently dies; or, on him whom the other, withhold the one, and the fad oecelicy forces to retaliate, is, other dies by your choice. !Hied in the nicely of sensation, an unde.

On our part the case is exceeding cided quellion. It reits wish you to plain ; in officer has been taken from preveot the sufferings of both. You bis confinement and murdered, and the have nothing to do but to give up the murderer is within your lines. Your murderer, and the matter ends, army have been guilty of a thousand Bui to protect him, be he who he instances of equal cruelig, but they may, is to patronize his crime, and to have been reodered equivocal, and trifle it off by frivolous and womeaning

enquiries enquiries is to promote it. There is derer and save your officer, as the no declaration you can make, no pro- first outset of a necessary reformation. mise you can give, that will obtain

COMMON SENSE. credit. It is the man and not the apo. philadelsbia, May 31, 1782. logy that is demanded.

You see yourself pressed on all Gides to spare the life of your own officer, for die he will if you withhold juf.

- CRITICAL ESSAY tice. The murder of Captain Huddy

ON THE is an offeoce not to be borne with, and there is no security we can have SCOTO-MILESTAN ANT1207. that such actions, or similar ones, fall

; : TIES. ' 1 not be repeared, but by making the (Written originally in French by tbe punishment fall upon yourlelves. To ..! Abbe Mac Grog began.) destroy the last security of captivity, i and to take the unarmed, the unrefift. . Nothing has so much perplexed ing prisoner to private and fportive the minds of hiftoriaps, as their res execution, is carrying barbarity too

searches into the origin of ancient high for filence. The evil MUST

nations ; and yet, on no subje&t have be put an end to ; and the choice of

they laboured with less fuccess. The persons refts with you. But if your

ancients have tranímited, on this attachment to the guilty is stronger

matter, so much of the marvellous io than to the innocent, you invent a their wriciops,' that it is difficult at crime that must deltroy your charac present to oiscriminate the imall ter, and if the cause of your king truths they contain from the fabulous needs to be supported, for ever cease,

accounts which varitly gave rise to; fir, to torture our remembrence with

so that it is certain, that the sacred the wretched phrates of British hon writings alone, are the only ipfallible nor, British geacrolity, and Britih

in guides we can have to lead us to a clemency.

knowledge of antiquity. So common From this melancholy circumstance it is to all people to dignify their orilearn, Gir, a lesson of morality. The gin, and to eltanlıh it on the most ilTefugees are meo whom your prede. Jutrious and anticor foundations ceffors have instructed in wick dress, It would seem that obfcure and novel the better to fit them to their master's commencements have something dilo purpose. To make them useful they honorable. To give them some lettre have made them vile, and the conse in the midst of surrounding darkoels quence of their tutored villany is now. fable is frequently resorted to, for the descending on the heads of their en. want of history; and they prefer hee couragers. They have been trained ing lost in an abyss of antiquity, ra. like hounds to the scent of blood and ther than acknowledge Gncerely : cherished in every species of diffolure late and moderate origin... barbarity. Their ideas of right and The Egyptians count a period of wrong are worn away in the constant forty-eight thousand years, and pre. habititude of repeated ipfamy, till tend to have seen twelve hundred like men practiseu in executions they eclipses previous to the reign of Alex. feel not the value of another's life. ander the Great. Manèthon, their

he task before you, though pain historian, relying on the pretended in. ful, is not difficult ; give up the mur. {criptions of the pillars of Hermes, in


the land of Seriad, describes the fuc- antiquity of their cities; they pretend i celions and reigns of their monarchs for example, that Palermo was foun.

several thousands of years before the ded in the time of the Patriarch period of the creation mentioned by Ifaac, by a colony of Hebrews, PhoeMoles..

nicians and Syrians; and that Saphu, "The Chaldeans go up fill higher; grandson of Elau, was governor of a they maintain that they have made tower in the same city, called Bych altronomical observations for the space 'They cite, agreeably to the example of four hundred thousand years. of Manechon, fome ancient inicrip

The Chinese caleulate on a reyo- tions, much of the fame stamp with lu:ion of forly thousand years, and those of the pillars of Herries. We allert, ihat they have made observa may pass the faoie opinion on the pretions a long time previous to the crea: tended antiquity of Mellina, which, tion.

say they, was enlarged by Nimrod. • The learned reje&t these chronolo- . Neither is the origin of the Romans gies as entirely fabulous, and consider better eltablished, for authors differ the pretended observations of the on this pa nt. Some ascribe it to the Egyptians and Chaldeans as uokoowo Trojans ; others to other founders. to the ancient astronomers. They But without going so far to explore thew that the pillars of Hermes is a these prodigies of antiquity, fabrica. mere fiation that falls by itself; for ted by vanity, have we got the hifby general consent, Herines was the iary of Brutus, invented by Geoffrey first inventor of alphabetical charack of Monmouth, an English monk of ters, and the land of Seriad was un- the twelfth century ? This religious, knowo to the ancient geographers. Zealous for the glory of his nation and As to the Chinele chronology, it has desirous to give it an illustrious oribeen demonftrated, that their preten, gin, brings one Brutus, great grandfioos were coniradićted by the Ephe. son of Æneas the Trojan, to people merides. It has been demonstrated Britain ; and by this fortunate disco. that the most ancient obfervations ac. very, he finds at the same time the knowledged by them as authentic, are origin and the name of Britons. This those of the two fixed stars, the one fyftem did not succeed, for it was rein the winter solstice, and the other jected by those whose greatest inte. in the month of March, in the time reft it was to support it, principally of their king Yao, who reigned after by Newbridge, Polidore Virgil, Bi. the delige.. if their historians give chanan, Camden, Baker and others. forty thousand years duration to their ? he higher we afcend to the anempire, it can be grounded only on an cient history of every country, the equivocal and uncertain tradition, be. more obscure we thall find it. It is cause as they themselves acknowledge probable, that the old Milefians dealt all their books were consigned to the in the marvellous as well as the other fames about two thousand years ago, cotemporary nations. The great ana by order of their emperor Z10, and tiquity to which they lay claim, will at present they possess no monuments doubtless appear astonishing. We can more ancient than that period. scarcely conceive, that, a people, ob.

The same réveries have found cre. fcure, and almott unknown, could dit amongst the Arcadians, who ale point out its origin, and trace geneasert, that they are more ancient than logies to such distant periods, whilft the moon; and the Sicilians, who the most confiderable nations in Euboalt exceedingly of the origia and rope, at this day, are novel and yet


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