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Then the King, having heard this report of the secret messengers, began to think whether the prince really intended to show preference for this maiden. At length, having selected a lucky day, he sent a certain Brahman, the Lord of the Empire, to the house of that Sakya Prince, Mahanama, to deliver this message—"I understand your highness has a daughter; let her, I pray you, contract a marriage with my son, the Prince Royal." Then Mahanama replied, "Our Sakya rules are these—if a man excel all others in martial exercises, then he is crowned victor, and carries off the prize of the fairest maiden; but if he fail, then no such prize can be his. I fear the Prince Royal has been brought up delicately, and has learned none of the arts and practices of chivalry, either in tilting, or wrestling or boxing; but how can I wed my child to one so utterly void of skill in these arts, as I fear the prince to be?"

The messenger, viz., the Lord of the Council, having heard this, returned forthwith to Suddhodana and reported it. The Raja, on hearing the message, was afflicted with chagrin, for his thoughts were these—" These words of Mahanama, I fear, are true words;" and so he sat silent and still, lost in thought and cast down by his reflections. The Prince Royal, observing this, respectfully approached his father's presence, and three times in succession inquired the cause of the Raja's grief. His father at first told him he had far better not inquire; but on the question being repeated three times, he told the prince precisely how the matter stood.

The prince, having learned the truth, spake thus to his father— "Let your majesty issue a proclamation that I am ready to compete with all comers, in the arts and exercises of war; or, is it not your will that I should so compete?" The king, hearing these words, was much rejoiced, and could not overcome his feelings of exultation, and turning to his son he asked him earnestly—" And are you, my son, prepared to carry out this project, and compete, as you say, against all comers in the arts and exercises of war?" The prince replied, "Listen to me, Maharaja! I am quite prepared and able! only let the Sakya youths be assembled, and I will challenge them all in the arts, and every feat of strength and skill!" Then the king ordered it to be proclaimed throughout the city of Kapilavastu, in every one of the principal thoroughfares and at the head of every street, that at the expiration of six days, and on the seventh, the Prince Siddartha would go forth to the place of tournament and contend in the arena, against all comers! Then on the seventh day all the Sakya youths, belonging to the five hundred families, with Siddartha at their head, having assembled together, went forth from the city and proceeded to the place of tournament.

At this time the great Minister, Mahanama, having caused his daughter Yasodhara to be adorned with every choice ornament (placed her in a conspicuous place), and made this proclamation respecting the victor—" Whoever the victor may be in this contest of skill and of arms, he shall carry off this my daughter as his prize." Then Suddhodana and all the old Sakya lords arrived at the jousting place, and with them countless crowds of young men and women, belonging to the ordinary population, desirous to see the prince and the Sakya youths contest for the prize. And first they determined to compete in the art of writing, and they appointed "Visvamitra to be umpire, to decide both as to the quickest and neatest and best writer among them. At this time Visvamitra, knowing already the prince's eminent skill in every kind of writing and his incomparable talents, smiled gently to himself, and repeated this Gatha :—

"Amongst men, or in heaven above,
Amongst Gandharvas, Asuras, or Garudas,
Whatever writing or books there be,
The Prince is able thoroughly to understand them.
Neither I, nor any of you,

Know even the names of these different writings, Although I am appointed here to judge and decide, Yet I certainly know that he will entirely surpass you." Then those Sakya youths proceeded in a body and addressed Suddhodana Raja thus—" We have found out that the prince, your majesty's son, is far superior to us in writing; but now let there be an examination in the art of figures, that we may know who is best in this."

Now, there was in the assembly a very eminent master of arithmetic, called Ardjuna—the most skilful of all professors of the art. Him the Sakya youths requested to act as umpire, saying, "Your honour will please decide as to which of us excels in the art of calculation and arithmetic."

Then the prince proposed a sum to one of the young Sakyas. The youth copied it down, but was unable to do it, and so with two of them and three; till at last all the five hundred copied it down, but could not solve it. Then the prince invited them to propose a calculation for him to make, on which one of the Sakyas oried out, "I will give you a sum you cannot do;" but he failed; [and so two, up to the whole five hundred]. Then Ardjuna, in astonishment and delight, uttered this Gatha:—

"Well done! a victory this to be ever kept in mind!
Clearly answering every proposed calculation without error!
The five hundred Sakya youths challenged him to the trial;
But though all together they made the trial—'twas vain!
Oh! what depth of wisdom and memory is here!
What power of calculation and what quickness!
Surely we have found a master of figures
Able even to count the drops of the ocean!
Be silent, then, all ye Sakyas—and hold your peace!
To contend with an one like this, ye are unable!
He who has exhibited such rare talents
ought only to be allowed to contend with myself!"

At this time all the Sakyas, conceiving great reverence in their hearts for the young prince, rose up at once from their seats, and, with joined hands, did him homage and exclaimed, "Sidd&rtha! O mighty prince! yours is the victory! verily, yours is the undoubted victory!"

And then they addressed Suddhodana and said, "Wonderful! wonderful good fortune is yours, Maharaja! in possessing such a son! gifted with such merit, such wisdom, such aptitude of speech, so sweet, so soft, so perfect in every word of his mouth!"

Then Suddhodana, filled with joy and satisfaction, turned to the prince with a smile and said, "Well done! but are you able, do you think, to compete with Ardjuna, the master of figures, in proposing some rare problem or expedient, in solution of questions of this sort?" The prince replied, "Maharaja! I am able to do so." The king answered, "If you are able to do so! now is your time." Then Ardjuna, the master of figures, asked the prince the following question, "Respectable prince! are you able to recite the numeration of figures above a lake ?"

The prince replied, "I am able." Then Arjuna, the master of figures, replied, "If so, let me hear you I"

Then the prince began, "One hundred hundred thousand is called a koti [i.e., a thousand myriad, (Ch. ed.)), a hundred kotis is called an Ayuta [i.e., ten lakhs (Oh. ed.)], a hundred Ayutas is called a Niyuta, a hundred Niyutas is called a Prayuta, a hundred Prayutas is called a Kafigkara, a hundred Kafigkaras is called a Vivara, a hundred Vivaras is called an Akshobya, a hundred Akshobyas is called a Vivasa, a hundred Yivasas is called an Utsafiga, a hundred Utsafigas is called a Bahuna, a hundred Bahunas is called a Nagabala, a hundred Nagabalas is called a Titibala, a hundred Titibalas is called a Vyavasthanapraj£a(pa)ti, a hundred of these is called a Hetuhila (and so on in the centenary scale, as follows): a Kalap6ta, a Hetvindrata, a Samantalambha, a Gannaganti, a Nimaradjya, a Madabala, an Agamada, a Sarvabala, a Viaandjnapati, a Sarvasandjfia, a Vibutagama, a Parikshaya; if this enumeration is used it is done by pounds, ounces, grains, etc. contained in Mount Sumeru (when ground to powder). Above this is an enumeration called Dhavadjaganimana; above this there is another enumeration called Savani; above this is another called Pranada; above this is another called Ifigga; above this another called Karoshtavata; above this another called Sarvanikchepa, by aid of this numeration one proceeds according to the sands of one Ganges, or two, and so on. Above this, again, is an enumeration called A gasava; in this one proceeds according to the sands of myriads of kotis of Ganges Rivers. There is an enumeration above this called Paramanu pravesa."

At this time Arjuna, the master of figures, addressed the prince and said, "And as to the enumeration which depends on the number of minute atoms of dust as a basis, are you able to explain this also? If so, be pleased to do so."

The prince replied, "Listen, then, to what I am about to tell you. Seven grains of these minute atoms of dust make one mote (such as one sees in a sunbeam), seven motes make one hare-grain (such as a hare raises in Nan sen hare grains make one sheep-grain, seven sheep-grains make one oxgrain, seven of these make a nit, seven of these a flea grain, seven of these a mustard-seed grain, seven of these a grain of barley, seven of these a finger-joint, seven finger-joints make

f half a foot (cubit), two of these a foot, two of these a forearm, four of these a bow, five bows a halbard, twenty halbard lengths make what is called a breath {sigh, i.e„ as far as one can walk with one inspiration of the breath), eighty of these make a krdsa, eight krosas make a yojana. Now, then, who in all this assembly can tell me how many minute grains of dust there are in one yojana?"

Then Ardjuna, the master of figures, replying to the prince, said, "Most illustrious sir! I indeed feel this question beyond my knowledge—I am in utter confusion of mind, how much more others, who are comparatively ignorant. Nevertheless, I pray you answer the question yourself—how many minute grains of dust are there in a yojana?"

[Kiouen XII contains 6,782 words, and cost 3.391 taelsto print.]


The competition in martial exercises (continued).

§ 1. (the prince, having answered the previous question, the narrative proceeds).

Then Ardjuna, the master of figures, and all the Sakya youths were highly delighted and exulted with great joy. They took off their costly garments and jewels to present to the prince, and addressed him in these laudatory stanzas. "Well done! well done! thou art indeed pre-eminent amongst us in the knowledge of figures, O prince! as well as in the art of writing. Incomparable is thy skill and thy knowledge." And then they added again, "We acknowledge thy victory in these matters, let us now compete in martial exercises I"

At this time, there was amongst the assembled Sakyas one great minister whose name was Sahadeva, him they appointed umpire.

Then Ananda began the joust, having placed at the distance of two krosas an iron drum as a target. Devadetta placed one at four krosas distance; whilst Nando (Sundarananda) placed one six krosas off. The great minister Mahanama, of the Basita family,

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