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But if one choose the good and virtuous as friends,
And follow their example in the daily work of life,
Though he may not come to great advantage (in the present

world), Still he shall escape the cause of future pain.” Notwithstanding all the advice of the world-honoured one, Nanda still hankered after the enjoyments of worldly rank and sensual pleasures. Whereupon Buddha resolved to have recourse to some expedient to wean him from these fascinations. So by his spiritual power he transported him from the Nyagrodha plantation, to the top of the hiang-tsui (perfume-drunken) mount. Now it happened that, owing to a heavy storm of wind, two. branches of a tree had, by friction, become ignited, and so a great fire had taken place on that mountain; in consequence of this fire many of the monkeys inhabiting the mountain had been seriously burnt-amongst the number, one in particular was dreadfully disfigured ; Buddha showing this one to Nanda, asked him if he saw the sad state to which it was brought. Whereupon Nanda replied, “ Yes ! indeed, world-honoured one, I see it.”

Then Buddha asked him if his sweetheart was as beautiful as the burned monkey; on which Nanda having professed that there could be no comparison between the two, Buddha transported him at once to the Trayastrinshas heaven, and showed him Sâkra with five hundred Devis attending him, and then asked Nanda if his sweetheart was as beautiful as one of those Devîs; on which Nanda confessed that no comparison could be made, and that the burned ape was not more inferior to his sweetheart in point of beauty, than she was to the Devîs. (The rest of the history of Nanda is identical with that found in the Manual of Buddhism, pp. 205-6).

Whereupon, Nanda having arrived at the condition of a Rabat, Buddha declared to all his disciples that he was the most eminent of all his followers in point of mastery over the senses; and then he related this story : “I remember more than ninety-one kalpas ago, there was a Buddha born in the world, called Vipasyi Tathâgata, he lived in a city called Pandumati, where reigned a king called Pandu. In this city there was a rich Brahman who constructed for Vipasyi and his followers a bath-house, and was gratified beyond measure to see the spotless forms of the Bhikshus as they came forth from the bath. After the death of this Buddha, the Brahman erected a stûpa for his ashes, and greatly venerated it. [The story then proceeds to relate that this Brahman was Nanda in a former birth].

The History of Bhadraka and others.

§ 2. Now at this time, Devadatta seeing the number of Sâkya youths, who had left their families to become followers of Buddha, thought thus with himself: “I too will go to the place where Buddta resides, with a view to become one of his followers.” On this, going to his parents, he explained his intention, and having received their consent, he clad himself in a beautiful garment, and proceeded in a sumptuous chariot, drawn by elephants, to the place where Buddha dwelt. Having arrived there and made known his purpose, the world-honoured one, looking into the previous history of Devadatta, saw that he was not in a condition to become a disciple, and so bade him return home again, and bestow his wealth in charity, so as to fit himself for the condition of a Bhikshu.

Devadatta then goes to Sariputra, Mugalan, and Kâsyapa, with a view to induce them to admit him into the fraternity, but they each refuse on the ground of their master's previous decision.

[Kiouen LVII contains 5930 words and cost 2.96 taels].


The History of Ananda and other disciples. Now it came to pass that Devadatta having been refused admis. sion into the fraternity by all the chief disciples, he returned to Kapilavastu, riding upon his white elephant. At this very time, also, Ananda had sought his parents' permission to join the community, but in vain, on account of some jealous feeling his mother had encouraged in her breast, because of Buddha’s exceeding beauty, when he was living at home. Ananda having thus been thwarted of his intention, retired into a desert place, and by silence and self-inflicted austerities, gained the reputation of being a Rishi. On this his parents relented, and gave him permission to join the company of the Sâkya youths who had entered the community.

At this time there were at Kapilavastu two brothers, the younger called Maniruddha (formerly called Aniruddha, Ch. Ed.), the elder called Mahanama; the former of these had become a special favourite with Bhadraka, who had been anointed king of the Sakyas in succession to Suddhôdana. This Bhadraka was the son of a Sâkya princess called “the dark Gotamî.” And now, having reigned twelve years, it came to pass that Maniruddha gained the permission of his parents to become a recluse, on condition that the king also resigned his throne; and so Maniruddha proceeding to the palace found the king in the Nâtaka Hall, listening to the music of his dancing women. After a time he en. tered, and proceeding to the king saluted him, and stood on one side. [After some discussion, the king agrees to become a recluse on the expiration of a week].

And so it came to pass, that Bhadraka, Maniruddha, and all the remaining Sâkya princes on a day agreed upon, advanced to the place where Buddha was residing, in a village called Anumegha, and having saluted him in the customary manner, requested to be admitted into his community; whereupon Buddha gave his consent, and admitted them all except Ananda and Devadatta. These two accordingly proceeded to the Himatâla Region, and joined themselves to the company of a Paribrâjaka, called Sangha. After


remaining with him some time, Ananda desired to return to the place where Buddha was, and having obtained permission of his master (Upâdyâya) Sangha, he prepared to set out.

[Kiouen LVIII has 6244 words and cost 3.122 taels.]


The History of Bhadraka and otherscontinued. Now when Devadatta saw Ananda about to leave the place where their master resided, he asked him whither he was going. On being informed, he begged Ananda to wait until he also obtained permission to accompany him. And so they went both together, and having arrived at the place where Buddha was residing, they made their obeisance and stood on one side. Then Devadatta ad. dressed Buddha as follows: “I formerly requested permission to enter your community, world-honoured ! but you refused permission : do you object now to see me the disciple of another—for a recluse I have become.” To whom the world-honoured replied, Devadatta! and why have you done so ? why have you thus turned against me ? "

Then the other disciples seeing the constant enmity which Devadatta bore Tathagata, requested to know the reason of it; on which the world-honoured related the following story.

The Story of the Bird with two heads." I REMEMBER in years gone by, there was a two-headed bird re


1 This story is also found in the Panchatantra" (translated by Lancereau), book v, fable 14, and also in the “Avadanas” (translated by Stas. Julien, cv). It seems likely that our own with two necks” may be derived from it. Ensigns bearing this emblem may be derived from the same source. The moral of the tale is evidently the necessity of agreement between the members of the "body corporate,” denoted by the two heads, i. e., “king and people.” [The fable found supra, p. 231, “the foolish dragon,” is also in the “Panchatantra," book iv, fable 1, Le singe et le crocodile].



siding in the Himatâla Region; the name of the one head was Garuda, of the other Upagaruda. Now when this bird with two heads wished to sleep, the heads took it in turn which should watch;

if Garuda slept, then Upagaruda watched (and vice versa). Now it so happended, that once on a time whilst Garuda was watching, and Upagaruda asleep, that they were close to a Madhuka tree, which was in full bloom. And so, fanned by the breeze, a lovely blossom of the tree was wafted close to Garuda's beak. Whereupon the wakeful head began to reflect thus : ‘Although I should eat this blossom by myself alone, yet when it enters our stomach, both of us will enjoy its exquisite flavour.' And so the head that was awake eat the flower unknown to the other.

“When therefore Upagaruda awoke, perceiving from his inward sensations that something delicious had been eaten during his rest, he said to his companion, 'Where did you get the scented blossom which I perceive, from my inward sensations and flavoured breath, you have eaten during my sleep?' The other replied, • Whilst you were asleep, I saw a Madhuka blossom wafted by the air close to my beak, and as I thought you would benefit from it as well as myself, I ate it without naming it to you.' Then Upagaruda was very angry on this account, and vowed that he would eat what he liked when the other was asleep, and not say a word about it. And so they lived on, and time passed, till once they happened to alight near a certain poisonous tree, and Garuda went to sleep whilst the other watched. Then the head that was awake seeing a blossom of the poisonous tree near him, began to think thus, ‘I will eat it even if it kills us both.' So snatching it up, he swallowed it. Then the other perceiving himself in pain awoke, and at once challenged his companion with having eaten some. thing whilst he was on watch. “Yes,' said the other, “I have eaten a blossom of yonder poisonous tree, and we shall both die.' • Alas! what a suicidal and wicked act,' said the other, 'why have you acted so?' And so the Gâtha says:

“You in days gone by were once asleep,

And then I ate a luscious perfumed flower,
Borne on the gentle breeze close to my beak;
On this account you entertained an angry temper.
So every foolish man, bereft of faith and reason,
Plots against those with whom he lives,

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