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water out of my pitcher? It is no Rishi that dwells here, it is a thief and nothing else.' Then Surya acknowledged what he had done, and received the full pardon of the other. But his heart was weighed down and full of grief because of his broken vow. Then a youth, one of his followers, coming to him for some business or other bowed down at his feet, as he was accustomed when he came into his presence, but Surya Rishi forbad him and said, ' My son! no more bow down to me, for I am a thief!' To which the youth replied, 'Upadhyaya ! (master) how so!' Then he told the entire circumstances of his case, and demanded that they should punish him as a thief. But they declined to do anything in the matter, and so Surya Rishi resolved to give himself up to the king, to be treated as his crime deserved. Then his brother Chandra, hearing that Surya wished to come to his city, sent forth horses and elephants, etc., to conduct him there, and on his approach Chandra bowed down at his feet in reverence. But Surya forbad him and said,' I am a thief, come here to be punished, do not pay me reverence!' Then Surya told the whole circumstances; on hearing them Chandra was very sorry, but all at once he bethought him of an expedient and said, ' I pass a law that all Rishis may take medicinal herbs and water when they need them.' To this Surya replied, ' Maharaja! you make this a law now, but it was not so before!' but Chandra replied, 'It has been so from the day I ascended the throne, I have freely permitted all Shamans and Brahmans to take these things, so you have committed no robbery.' Surya was still dissatisfied, and at length, at the suggestion of his little cousin who was standing by, Chandra ordered the Rishi to go into his own royal garden, and consider himself as a prisoner. Now by a strange accident after this interview was over, Chandra entirely forgot about his brother being in the garden for six days; after this interval the recollection of the fact came back, and he hurriedly inquired of his ministers whether the Rishi had gone or not? Hearing that he had not gone, he immediately gave orders that all the culprits in his kingdom who were suffering imprisonment should be set at liberty, and all other creatures, birds and beasts, and then going to the garden, he offered to Surya every kind of charitable offering, in the way of meat and drink, and then gave him the option of leaving whenever he liked. On this Surya departed."

"Now," said Buddha, "at that time I was Surya, and Rahula was Chandra, and because he allowed that Rishi to remain for six days in the garden, unattended to and without food, therefore he was himself for six years shut up in his mother's womb, unable to find deliverance."

"Again, I remember in years gone by there was a large herd of cows kept by a certain rich man. Every day the wife and daughter of the owner of the cows went to milk them. Once the mother took the girl with her, and made her carry the larger of the two milk pails; on returning home, the mother kept urging the girl to go faster as that part of the road was dangerous. But the girl only complained of the heavy weight of the pail of milk. At last, when her mother continued to urge her on, she got angry, and put down the pail and said, 'Here, mother! you carry my pail for a bit, whilst I step on one side for a purpose.' And so having got rid of the milk-pail, she let her mother carry it a distance of six krosas, whilst she dawdled behind. Now this girl was afterwards born as Yasodhara, and because of her undutiful conduct to her mother in making her carry the heavy pail for six kr6sas, she had to carry Rahula for six years."

The world-honoured one having explained these matters, and further preached the law to Suddhodana and his guests, rose up and departed.

Then Yas6dhara sent Rahula to the place where Buddha was, and told the child to ask his father for his kingdom (or authority over a district). On this the child came to where Buddha was, and going up to him said, "I want the Shaman to give me a kingdom. I want the Shaman to give me authority over a district." On this Buddha holding out his hand, Rahula took it, and thus they went on together. Finally Buddha delivered Rahula to the care of Sariputra, who instructed him in the rules of moral discipline, and finally he was admitted as a member of the community. And on this occasion Buddha bare record that, of al l his disciples, Rahula should be most remarkable for holding or keeping the precepts of the law (moral precepts). [The foregoing is what the Mahasanghikas say. The Kasyaptyas say somewhat otherwise, as follows):

Now, when Suddhodana had prepared the feast for the worldhonoured one, he gave strict orders through the palace that no one should tell Bahula that Buddha was his father. Accordingly, the next morning Rahula, surrounded by children of his own rank, proceeded to the grove where Buddha was, to tell him that all was ready. Then Buddha, surrounded by the Bhikshus, 1,200 in number, proceeded in order and with much decorum towards the king's palace. Rahula, observing the decorous behaviour of the Bhikshus, and comparing it with the noisy conduct of the children, was very much impressed, and on reaching the palace, he watched the assembled priests take their seats with their accustomed gravity, and then went up to the balcony where Yasodhard, his mother, was. She, too, had watched the world-honoured one and his followers approach, and on seeing her husband with his shaven crown and Kashaya robes, she burst into tears. And so the Gatha says

"The young wife of the Sakya Prinee
Was called Yasodhara (Sudara),

When she saw for the first time the marks of a recluse,
Her heart was grieved, and her tears flowed fast."

Rahula, finding his mother thus giving vent to her grief, inquired of her why she wept, on which she said, " My child, yonder Shaman, whose skin is bright as gold, is your father." Then Rahula replied, "Never since I was born have I heard better news," and quickly ran down, and going up to Buddha, sat down by his side, and covered himself over with the robe of his father. The Bhikshus wished to drive him away, but the world-honoured one forbad them and said, " Let him stay, and let him hide himself in my robes." Then the feast over, Suddhodana having himself waited on the priests, and provided water, etc., for cleansing the mouth and fingers, the king occupying a small seat near the world-honoured one, listened to the exposition of the law. Then Buddha began his discourse1

"Of all sacrifices (that by) Fire is the chief,
Of all exhausting passions Grief is the chief,
Of all men a King is the chief,
Of all waters the Sea is the chief,
Of all stars the Moon is the chief,
Of all lights the Sun is the chief;

1 The stanzas following are also to be found in the "Sela Sutta" (sects. 19, 20) of the "Sutta Nipata." Translated by Sir M. Coomara Swamy (Triibner & Co.).

Above, below, and through the earth,
Amongst all creatures that have life,
Whether gods or men, Buddha is chief."

Having repeated these lines with a view to excite in Suddhodana some desire or thought about religion, the world-honoured one arose and departed to his place.

Then Suddhodana having to be occupied for some time in official duties, Rahula took the opportunity of leaving the palace and going after Buddha. On this the world-honoured one took him by the hand, and went onwards with him to the Nyagrodha grove. Then, at his own request, Rahula was admitted by Sariputra into the community as a Samanera. [The Bhikshus having reminded Buddha that the age for ordination was 20, the world-honoured made it a rule that at 15 (Rahula's age) a youth may be received as a Samanera (novice).]

Meantime, Suddhodana having sent every necessary article of food for the use of Buddha and his followers, now sat down to meat himself, and desired to have Rahula by his side; but on sending for him he was nowhere to be found. Then the king ordered messengers to go to the different resorts of the prince; first to the Asoka grove, and see if he was in either of the palaces there. Not finding him, he sent to the Nyagrodha grove, and then the messengers came back with the news that Rahula had entered the community. Then Suddhodana was filled with grief, and rising up he went to the place where Buddha was. Arrived there the king explained how he had successively intended to leave his kingdom to Nanda, Ananda, Aniruddha, and Rahula, but all these had become ascetics, and now the king said, " I may as well resign my throne, for there is no one to succeed me." [Then Buddha made the rule that no one should be admitted to the community, except he had the express sanction of his parents.] Then for the sake of Suddhodana, the world-honoured one entered on an explanation of the law, and so filled the king's heart with joy. After this the Raja returned home.

[There are other teachers1 who say that Bahula was born two years before Buddha commenced his six years' penance, and that sevenyears after he had arrived at supreme wisdom, he went to Kapilavastu. This

1 Five teachers.

would make RaMla exactly 15 years old at the time of his becoming a Samanera.]

Again the body of teachers (sthaviras ?) say that Mahaprajapati havingthrough much weeping lost her sight, then twelve years afterwards when Buddhareturned to Kapilavastu, she, with Rahula and 99,000 of the Sakyas, went forth to salute him. Then hearing of the wonderful miracles which he wrought, such as causing fire to proceed from one part of his person and water from another, she took some of the miraculous water, and washing her eyes with it was restored to sight.

Then all the Bhikshus astonished at this miracle, Buddha said this was not the first time such an occurrence had taken place in the history of Mahaprajapati, and at the request of all the disciples, he related the following history.

[Kiouen LV contains 5833 words, and cost 2.917 taels.]

CHAPTER LVI.

"I Rememrer, oh Bhikshus! in years gone by there was a mountain in the Kasi country, near Benares,1 which was called Utsanga, on the southern face of which was a garden beautifully adorned with flowers, and water-tanks, and shady groves. Now in this mountain at a certain time there gathered a herd of elephants, amongst which was a certain female elephant that gave birth to a young one of a perfectly white colour except its head, which was of a dark rosy colour like the head of the Indragopa2 bird. Moreover, this elephant had six tusks (chhadanta), and its seven parts planted on the ground (four feet, two tusks, and trunk). Now, this young elephant, having grown up to its full size, was so piously endowed that it even fetched food and other necessaries for its parents, so that it would never touch anything to eat himself till they had first been supplied. And so it happened that on one occasion, having wandered rather far in search of food, this elephant was seen by a certain chief of hunters, who, having set eyes on him, thought thus:

1 According to certain teachers.

2 But this is generally regarded as a beetle, or cochineal.

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