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"As a mustard seed compared with Mount Meru,
As the pool, caused by the cow's footstep, compared

with the great ocean, As the gnat compared with the Garuda, So am I compared with my master!" [And much more to the same effect]. At length, Upatissa having inquired what was the doctrine taught by the great Shaman, Asvayujatta replied, " I am but the disciple of a day, and know but little of the profound doctrine of my master ; but yet I will tell you in brief what I have understood." To which Upatissa replied, " Pray tell me in few words, venerable one, for I love not long discourses," and so the Gatha says:— "I desire only true reason, I love not words and sentences; The wise man loves sound Reason, Relying on this, he frames his Life." Then Asvayujatta consented to explain what he knew of his master's teaching; "My master, he said, discourses on the connection of causes and their consequences, he also touches on the path of deliverance, and so A Gatha which he often repeats will explain, [The above is what the Mahasanghikas say; the account of the Easy- apiyas is a little different, and as follows]:—" What then is this system of doctrine, venerable sir?" "My master repeats the following aphorism of the Law:

"All things are produced by cause, All things are destroyed by cause; Thus Destruction and Production, Our Shaman says, result from cause." Then Upatissa (the Paribrajika) at once comprehended the character of the doctrine involved in these lines, whilst the venerable Asvayujatta went on to explain them, thus—

"The phenomena which result from cause,
By cause also are destroyed;

Destroy this cause, and you arrive at supreme wisdom, So teaches my master, the great Shaman." Then Upatissa, the Paribrajika, having clearly perceived the truth of this doctrine, obtained perfect peace and was freed from all doubt; so opening his mouth, he said,

[graphic]

"This Dharmachariya (mode of teaching), which I have heard, Thro' Niyutas of Kalpas Has not thus been exhibited." Then Upatissa, the Paribrajika, having uttered this stanza, bowed down at the feet of Asvayujatta, and having circumambulated him three times, departed to the place where Kolita, the Paribrajika, was dwelling.

Then Kolita, seeing the sparkling eyes and joyful countenance of his friend, asked him if he had found the deliverance he sought, and the way of immortality. [On this, Upatissa repeats the stanza above given, and Kolita also arrives at a condition of rest.] They then went to the abode of Sanjaya, and entreated his permission to join themselves to the company of the Lord of the world, and on his refusing to let them go or to come himself with them, they turned away from him and left his society.

Meantime, the disciples of the Paribrajika Sanjaya, reflecting on what had happened, resolved to follow after Upatissa and Kolita, and accompany them to the great Shaman. In vain Sanjaya cried, "Oh! leave me not! do not go!" for they heeded not his entreaties, and departed. Then Sanjaya, overcome with grief, began to vomit up blood and died.

Then the two young men, Upatissa and Kolita, accompanied by the 500 Paribrajikas, went on to the Kalandavenuvana, to join themselves to the company of the Lord of the world.

Then Buddha, seeing them afar off approaching to the place, addressed Kaundinya thus—" See you those two young men! they are coming hither, not for the purpose of disputation, but because they seek to learn a more excellent way than that in which they have been instructed;" and then, turning to all the Bhikshus, he said, "These two shall be themost distinguished of my disciples—the one for wisdom, the other "T||^piritual power (irddhi)." And so the Gatha says [to the samee^80*]

Then approaching the presence of the Lord of the world^^ besought him to admit them into the company of his discinl^^^ to whom the world-honoured spake thus, "Welcome Bhiksh t N enter into my fraternity; ye have practised the Rules of a Br h mana, and therefore have cast off the trammels of worldly sorrow

Welcome, then, to my company!" On this, the new Bhikshus were provided miraculously (of itself) with the proper garments with which to invest themselves, and having put on these, their hair fell off, so that their heads were as smooth as a child's head when first shaved.x They then took their places in the assembly, the venerable Kolita on the left and the venerable Upatissa on the right of the Lord of the world. [And in the course of a half month Upatissa became a Rahat, and six days afterwards Kolita likewise obtained that condition.]

Now the mother of the venerable Upatissa was called Sari, and so Upatissa was generally called Sari putra (putta). And so Kolita is called Mugalana (because this was his family name).

Then the world-honoured related the following stories in connection with the previous history of these two distinguished disciples. "I remember in years gone by there were two children living in Benares, a brother and sister, both called Supriya. The boy became a recluse and afterwards a ^Pratyeka Buddha, the girl became a Paribrajika heretic.

"On a certain occasion, the Pratyeka Buddha went to visit his sister, at which time she provided every kind of delicate food and drink for him, after partaking of which she then presented him with a knife and (a case of) needles. On this, the Pratyeka Buddha, by his spiritual power, rose up into the air and flew away. Whereupon the Paribajika, falling down on the earth with her hands clasped over her head, adored him, and prayed thus—' Oh! that I may in some future birth meet with a divine teacher like this man, and so avoid falling into the evil paths of transmigration. And as the needle is able to penetrate everything by its sharpness, so may I be able to pierce through the most difficult subjects of enquiry and cut away every doubt by the acuteness of my intellect.' This Supriya, Bhikshus ! is now born as Sariputta.

"Again, I remember in days gone by there was a certain shell merchant residing at Benares, who likewise fed a Pratyeka Buddha, and on seeing him fly away through the air, he offered up a similar prayer, desiring that he might possess the same spiritual power as that Pratyeka Buddha had. This shell-merchant, Bhikshus, is the present Mugalyana."

[Kiouen XLVIII contains 6,374 words, and cost 3.187 taels.]

1 Vide Jul. iii, 52.

CHAPTER XLIX.

The Story of the Five Hundred merchants.

§ 1. At this time, all the Bhikshus inquired of Buddha how it was that these 500 Paribajikas, followers of Sanjaya, the heretic, were able to accept the guidance of Sariputra, and escape from the pitfalls and wastes of heretical teaching, and find deliverance in the hearty belief of the doctrines taught by the Lord of the world.

On this Buddha answered and said, " Listen well, oh Bhikshus! and weigh my words. This is not the first time that by the guidance of Sariputra these 500 heretics have been able to find escape and deliverance; but I remember in ages gone by there was a certain royal horse born called Kesi,1 his bodily appearance most beautiful, his coat as white as the driven snow or as the brightest silver, pure as the moon when full, or as the flower of the kuta (grass). His head of a bright fiery colour,2 his feet swift as the wind, his voice mellow as that of the softest drum. At this time, there were in Jambudwipa five hundred merchant men who wished to undertake a voyage by sea for the purpose of exchanging their goods for others and so increasing their wealth. Accordingly, having selected a wise man as their chief and leader, they came down the sea shore for the purpose of embarking their merchandise and setting out on the voyage. First of all, having paid their devotions to the Sea-God, they appointed five men to superintend the various departments. One to manage the sails3 (sailing master ?), a second to hold the oar (helmsman o, a third to pump out the water, a fourth to manage the stowing (floating and sinking, i. e., the draught or stowage), and a fifth to be captain. Having then confessed to one another whatever crimes they had committed and duly repented of them, and having moreover instructed one another in all the preliminary duties before embarking in such an undertaking as theirs, they set sail for the purpose of seeking jewels and precious stones.

1 For allusions to this horse Kesi refer to the Vish. Puv., p. 540, also to the Prem Sagar, p. 73 (Eastwick's translation.)

2 That is, the colour of the sandal wood, known as Qosirsha. Compare Bucephalos.

'3 Vide below, chap. 50, where the expression is "shap mi." I suppose "mi" is equal to the " main-sheet."

"Suddenly, whilst on the voyage, there arose a fierce storm, which blew their vessel toward the country of the Rakshasis,1 and ere they could reach the shore the tempest beat so against them, that their ship was entirely broken up and destroyed. At this time the merchants bound themselves to pieces of the wreck, and struggling with the waves endeavoured to reach the shore.

"Now the Rakshasis having perceived the disaster and the fate of the 500 merchants, hastened with all speed to the place, intending to rescue the men and enjoy their company for a time, and then according to their custom to enclose them in an iron city belonging to them, and there devour them at their leisure. Having transformed themselves, therefore, from their real shape as hideous ogres into the most lovely women, adorned with jewels, flowers, and every kind of charming ornament, they hurried down to the spot, and when arrived there, they cried out, ' Be not afraid, illustrious strangers! be not alarmed, dear youths! stretch out your hand, lift your arm, rest yourselves here! thus! thus!' and so the merchants, half drowned in the ocean, hearing these welcome words, and seeing the pleasing forms of the women, did as they were told, and so by their help reached the shore in safety.

"Then the Rakshasis in great joy cried out,'Welcome ! welcome! dear youths! Whence have ye come so far? But now ye are here, let us be happy. Be ye our husbands, and we will be your wives! We have no one here to love or cherish us, ; be ye our lords, to drive away sorrow, to dispel our grief! Come, lovely youths! come to our houses, well adorned and fully supplied with every necessary; hasten with us to share in the joys of mutual love.'

"Then those merchants addressed the Rakshasis thus: 'Illustrious maidens! (sisters) let your hearts rest awhile! Give us a short space to expend our grief and dispel the sorrowful thoughts that afflict us!' Then those men, going apart by themselves, gave vent to their sorrow! They raised their voices and cried, 'Alas! alas!' One lamented for his father and his mother; another cried, 'Alas! my sisterl' or, 'Alas! my brother!' Another exclaimed, 'Alas! my loved ones !' 'My dear kinsfolk!' 'My house !' 'My fellow-clansmen!' 'Alas ! we shall see you no more!' 'Alas! for Jambudwipa, our own dear country, unequalled for beauty and delight. Alas! alasy

1 That is, Ceylon.

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