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world and enter on a religious life; let us give up all worldly pleasures and lead a life of purity, if haply I may thus atone for my wickedness' His wife having consented, they both became religious ascetics, and after death were born in heaven.

"Now Bhikshus! that peasant was Mahakasyapa in a former birth, and his wife was the Bhikshuni Bhadrakapriya."

The History of Sari(putra) and Mulin (Mudgalaputra).

§ 4. At this time, not very far from Rajagriha, there was a village called Narada1 (Nalanda ?), where lived a certain rich Brahman, called Danayana (or, Danyayana) [other accounts say that his name was Danadatta. Ch. Ed.] Now this wealthy Brahman had eight sons, the first was called Upatiasa (and so on). Moreover, he had one daughter called " Susimika," who had become a recluse belonging to the heretical order of Pariprajikas. [But the Mahdsanghikas say that he had only seven sons, the first called Damma, the second Sudamma, the third Upadamma, the fourth Tissa, the fifth Upatissa, etc. Of all these Upatissa was the most promising and talented. He was thoroughly acquainted with the literature usually acquired by the Brahmans, and his disposition was most gentle and loving. Ch. Ed.]

Not far from the spot where Upatissa lived there was a village Kolita,2 and in that village a Brahman, exceedingly rich, who was called by the same name, and he had an only son, who was also very accomplished and of great natural genius. Between this young Kolita and Upatissa there sprung up a close friendship, so that they were always together, and never so much grieved as when necessity kept them apart, and so the Gatha says—

"Closely as cause and effect are bound together,
So do two loving hearts entwine and,live,
Such is the power of love to join in one.
Even as the lily lives upon and loves the water,
Upatissa and Kolita likewise,

1 Vide Fah-Hian, p. Ill n.

2 Called Koulika by JuL iii, 51.

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These two joined by closest bond of love,
If by necessity compelled to live apart,
Were overcome by grief and aching heart."

[Kiouen XLVII, contains 6,054 words, and cost 3.027 taels.]


Now, at a short distance from Rajagriha there is a mountain called Giriguha, on which mountain at stated periods there used to be an assembly convened for the purpose of distributing charity among the priests. There was also another mountain called Rishigiri, on which similar assemblies were held; also on a mountain called Vaibhara, and another called Panda, and another called Vaihara. Now, on all these mountains assemblies were held in certain rotation. At this time it happened that the convocation took place on the mountain called Grihakuha (or guha) and countless people, afoot and in carriages and vehicles of all descriptions, were assembled together to witness the spectacle. Now the distance of the villages Narada (orNalanda) and Kolika (for Kolita ?) from Rajagriha was not more than half a yojana. At this time the youth Tissa thought thus with himself, " I ought certainly to go to this assembly on Mount Giriguha, to see if the people assembled there can do me any good or benefit my mind in any way." So Upatissa having ordered his chariot, drawn by four elephants, to be harnessed at once, set out from Narada towards Giriguha, to see what the people there assembled were doing. At this time also the youth Kolita began to think thus, "Certainly I ought to go to that great assembly on Mount Grihaguha," and so, mounting on his elephant, caparisoned for the occasion, he set out and gradually drew near to the spot; before him were all sorts of dancing men and women, whilst the music sounded on every side as he proceeded.

Thus it was these two accomplished youths set out to visit the same spot, and moved by the same considerations.

Having arrived at the place, they were both accommodated with high chairs in the midst of the assembly. Then Upatissa observing the vast crowd, all engaged in listening to music and watching the performances of dancers and acrobats, began to reflect thus, "How strange that so vast a multitude should be amused by such trifles as these! and then to reflect that after a hundred years not one of all this multitude will be alive!" Thinking thus, he began to regret that he had come to such a place, and so rising from his seat, he left the assembly and sought the retirement of a neighbouring wood, where, sitting down beneath a tree, he gave himself to severe reflection.

Now in the middle of that assembly there was one celebrated performer, who by his amusing tricks caused great merriment among the people; then the youth Kolita, seeing that vast assembly convulsed with laughter and hearing nothing but " Ha! ha," "Ho! ho !" on every side, began to think thus—"All these people in a hundred years will be nothing but bleached bones, scattered here and there." Thinking thus, he was much depressed, and felt very sad; Rising from his seat, therefore, he went his way in search of Upatissa, whom he found after a while seated beneath the tree as before described; having approached to the spot, the youth Kolita addressed his friend and said, "Why are you so sad, dear Upatissa, and why are you sitting here alone, lost in reflection, this is a time for mirth and joy, and not for grief, surely no calamity or misfortune has befallen you, dear friend, to cause you such affliction ?" And so the Gatha says—

"Hark to the sound of drum and lute,

The voice of singing men and women!

Listen to the merry ringing laugh,

Why then do you rejoice not, too?

This is a time for happiness and glee,

And not for sorrow and despondency,

This is a time to laugh and sing

And not to weep and sigh;

Hark then! listen to the pleasant sound,

The sound of voices like the choir of Heaven!

This meeting, like the assembly of the Gods!

Surely this is not a place or time for tears 1"

Then Upatissa replied, "Dear Kolita! look at that vast assembly! listen to the merry sound of music and of singing! hark to

the ringing laugh, and then remember in a hundred years not one
of all that multitude will be alive!" And so the Gatha says—
"This people, under the dominion of desire and love,
Can find no safety whilst in such a state,
For all such things are weak and perishing.
What joy can people such as these possess?
These multitudes, and all things living,
Defiled by lust and fleshly appetites,
Ere long will be consigned to lowest hell.
I, therefore, in my heart can find no place for joy
But rather filled with dread, my sorrow swells and grows,
For all these pleasures, tho' repeated, cannot avert
The coming end—I, therefore, will have none of them!"

To this Kolita replied—

"In grief as well as joy we are united,
In sorrow and in happiness alike!
That which the wise man says in verse,
Is now the case with me and you,
'What your heart rejoices in as good,
that I rejoice in, and pursue:
It were better I should die with you,
Than vainly try to live.where you are not!'"

Thus, these two inseparable friends agreed to become religious mendicants together, and seek the waters of immortality. Returning to their homes, therefore, after much solicitation and repeated prayers, they obtained their parents' permission, and so finally left their friends and retired apart to lead a religious life. Now, at this time there was in Rajagriha a certain heretical teacher called Parijava Sanjaya,1 followed by 5U0 disciples. Upatissa, then, and Kolita, having as yet no master, at length found their way to this Sanjaya, and after inquiring into his system, gave themselves up to practise it. [This system appears to have required the use of medicinal herbs for the purpose of producing ecstasy.] Having tried this method for seven days and nights, and

1 Jul. iii, 52. Parijava in the text is evidently a mistake for Paribajaka. With respect to Sanjaya compare Introd. to Ind. B., p. 5a2.

thoroughly investigated it, they found no rest to their souls, and were still dissatisfied.

At this time it was that the Lord of the world was dwelling near Rajagriha, in the Kalandavenuvana, attended by the thousand Rahats, and waited on by Bimbasara and countless thousands of people. It so happened that an old Bhikshu, called Upasana, the most reverend of all the disciples of Buddha, went very early in the morning, with his robes properly adjusted, and his alms-bowl in his hand to beg from house to house in Kajagriha. [So the Mahasanghikas say, but the other schools Say that the Bhikshu's name was Asvayujatta.1] Whilst so begging, robed in his Sanghati and his Nirvasana, with his alms-dish carried evenly in his hands, he was watched by the people, who all agreed that he must be one of the Sakyas, so graceful and dignified his appearance. The two youths, Upatissa and Kolita, likewise, having beheld him were convinced that if there was a Rahat in the world that he was one, and forthwith they resolved to follow him to his place of residence, and enquire respecting the religious system he had adopted.

Accordingly, having found him, they saluted him and stood on one side. Upatissa then addressed him as follows: "Most reverend Sir, do you receive disciples to instruct them in your doctrine?"

To whom Asvayujatta replied, "I myself am only a learner (sravaka) and not a teacher." Upatissa rejoined, "Who then, reverend sir! is your master, and where does he dwell? and what is his doctrine? and what is his name p" [Now at this time, just after the Lord of the world had arrived at supreme wisdom, he was universally known as "the Oreat Shaman" (Ch. ed.)] Then Asvayujatta replied to Upatissa as follows: "My master is the Great Shaman of the race of the Sakyas, and his religious system of complete retirement from the world is that which I have adopted, to my heart's joy."

Then Upatissa asked, "and is that great Shaman of whom you speak, as full of dignity and grace as you are?" To whom Asvayujatta answered as follows:—

1 Called elsewhere Asvajita. CI derive Asvayujatta from Jul. Methode, 2292.]

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