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At this time all the Bhikshus asked Buddha, saying, " Lord of the world! what previous circumstances in the history of Maha Kasyapa led to this happy termination of his life?" Then Buddha answered, " I remember in ages gone by that there was, a certain Pratyeka Buddha, whose name was Tagara Sikhi, who lived in the city of Benares. At that time, owing to a famine, there was scarce any grain to be had, and in consequence many men died from want, and the mendicants of the various religious orders could scarce obtain any food in alms. At this time the Pratyeka Buddha, having got up early one morning and put on his robe, took his alms-dish in his hand, and entering the city went begging from door to door. Having obtained nothing, he returned to his place of residence, washed his bowl, and sat down. Now there was a certain poor man in Benares at that time who, on this very morning, had watched the Pratyeka Buddha as he went from house to house, and seeing that he got nothing he had followed him to his place of residence, and there watching his peaceful and contented behaviour, he addressed him as follows:— "Venerable Rishi! have you obtained aught in alms during your visit to the city, or not?" To whom the Pratyeka Buddha replied that he had received nothing. On this the poor man asked him to his house, to share with him all he had, which was just one measure of coarse cockle seed. Having cooked this he gave it to the Rishi, on which the latter rose up and passed away through the air; on seeing this, the poor man fell down on his face in adoration, and with his hands clasped over his head he prayed that, if ever that Rishi came into the world as a Buddha to teach men, he might be one of his disciples. [And so it came to pass that this poor man was afterwards born as Maha Kasyapa, who was converted by the preaching of that Rishi, born in the present age as Sakya Muni,] etc.

[Kiouen XLVI contains 6121 words, and cost 3.06 taels.]


The beginning of this section is occupied by an account of Maha Kasyapa's condition at present; being enclosed within a mountain cavern, awaiting the arrival -of Maitreya Buddha.1

The History of Bhadraka.

§ 1. Now after the Lord of the world had admitted Mahaprajapati among the number of his disciples, Over exercising his divine power of sight, looked abroad to see what had become of Bhadraka priya.2 Having done so, he perceived that she had joined herself to an heretical sect, and was now leading the life of a Paribrajika, near the river Ganges.

Having therefore called a Bikshumi, gifted with spiritual power, to his side, he prayed her to go to the spot where Bhadraka was and endeavour to bring her into the number of the disciples. This Bikshuni, after receiving the commission, by the exercise of her spiritual power, in a moment alighted on the spot where Bhadraka was, and after describing the character of Buddha as a teacher, conducted her, by virtue of the power she possessed, in a moment to Sravasti, where the Lord of the world was residing in the Jetavana. Then overpowered by the excellency of his presence, the newly arrived Bhadraka besought the Lord to admit her among the number of his female disciples. Whereupon Buddha bade Ananda to conduct her to Mahaprajapati for instruction and initiation.

Then Maha Prajapati Gotami, having received Bhadraka at the hands of Ananda, admitted her into the number of the female disciples, and committed to her the rules of the community, and so she became a true Bikshuni, and in the joy of her heart she sang this song,

"Now am I freed from the power of birth and death,
Now all my discipline as a Brahmani is ended,
I have experienced a true and living conversion,
And shall no more be hampered by personal existence."

Then she became a Rahat and obtained final deliverance.

1 Vide Fah-hian. Cap. xxxiii.
2 That is, his former wife.

The Story of the Eeligious Servant Girl.

§ 2. Then Buddha related further the history of Bhadraka in her former birth and said, "I remember in ages gone by, there was dwelling at Benares a certain rich householder, whose wife had a slave girl to wait on her in the house. One day, a Pratyeka Buddha, having come to the neighbourhood of the city, took up his abode there for a time. Early in the morning, he put on his robe, took his alms-bowl in his hand, and went forth to beg his food. Coming to the door of the householder, above named, he stood there awaiting the time when some food should be given him. Now it so happened that the slave girl had watched the movements of the mendicant, and being impressed by his dignity and self-possession, she had found her mind much comforted and pacified. On this, she came indoors to her mistress and addressed her thus — ' Reverend mistress! [Holy woman or lady) There is a Bhikshu standing before the door begging food!' Now it so happened that just then her mistress was engaged dressing (combing) her hair, and as she was sitting down, her left hand holding up her tresses, she saw the Pratyeka Buddha at some little distance off. She saw that he was old and ugly, and without any graceful way with him; so having seen this, she said at once to the slave girl, 'I have taken a dislike to that ugly old man, so dirty and graceless—I have nothing to give him!' On this, the girl replied, 'Reverend and virtuous lady! pray give him a little! pray give him something! in the case of such holy persons, one does not look for comeliness of person, but purity of heart!' But her mistress said, 'I hate 'such ugly people, and I have nothing to give him.' On this the girl rejoined, ' Reverend mistress! if you cannot find it in your heart to bestow some charity on this mendicant, pray you' ll give me my daily portion of meal, and I will bestow some portion of it on him.' To this, the mistress said, 'Well, girl! you may have your food to do what you like with it.' Whereupon, having received it, the slave girl at once gave it in charity to the Pratyeka Buddha, as he stood before the gate.

[The Pratyeka Buddhas can convert people only by displaying their spiritual powers, not by any preaching of the Law. Ch. Ed.]

"So it came to pass that this mendicant, directly he had taken


the food of the girl, was moved with compassion for her, and so mounting into the air, he flew away through space, till she lost sight of him.

"Seeing this wonderful event, the girl fell down in adoration, and clasping her hands over her head she prayed thus—' Oh, would that I, at some future time, may meet with this divine personage as a teacher who may instruct me how to avoid the evil ways of life, and be born with a graceful and attractive body, so that I may not create feelings of dislike in the breasts of those who see me, as this Pratyeka Buddha did in the mind of my mistress!' Now the lady who was dressing her hair, having watched the whole proceeding, was filled with astonishment at the sight of the spiritual power of the Bhikshu, and so coming out to the girl she said, 'My good little girl! if you will give me the merit of the charitable action you have just performed, I will give you as much food again as I bestowed just now!' But the servant refused; 'indeed, she said, dear lady! I cannot!' Whereupon the mistress offered her twice as much, up to twenty times as much food. But she still declined to part with the merit she had acquired. Then the mistress getting angry cried, 'how dare you disobey me! how dare you refuse me! I will beat you well, and make you feel for it.' Whereupon, she chastised the girl, who on her part began to weep and to scream with as loud a voice as she could.

"Now it so happened that the master of the house, hearing the hubbub, came indoors, and seeing the servant girl weeping and sobbing, he inquired what was the matter with her, in this way, 'My good girl (bhadra), why are you crying so?' on which, the slave girl, turning to her master, told him all about it. Then the lord being angry, called out at once for the mistress to come, and ordered her to take off her fine clothes and her jewels, and said to her, 'You know that I warned you that I would lock you up {kim k au, put in the stocks) if you ever refused to give charity to any Brahman or Shaman who might come to the door to beg.' Thereupon he drove her out of doors, and shut her up in the small house at the back, and then he ordered the servant girl to go wash herself and put on her mistress's clothes and jewels, and then he opened his treasures, and told her to give away just as she liked, either to Shaman or Brahman, whatsoever she pleased of all he

"Bhikshus! this slave girl was Bhadraka in a former birth, and in reward for her charity she was born in heaven as a most beautiful girl, for whom the very gods were jealous, and finally she was born in the house of that rich Brahman, and is now the Bhikshuni Bhadrakapriya."

The Story of the Peasant's Wife.

§ 3. Again st related this story—" I remember in years gone by, there was a certain poor man at work in the fields, whose wife at the proper time set forth to take him his dinner. Now, as she came down to the river bank, she saw there a Pratyeka Buddha sitting and lost in reverie: at the sight of this reverend person, the woman put down her basket, and falling prostrate, she remained adoring him with hands clasped above her head. Meantime the peasant, who had seen his wife set out from the house, and watched her a long way off as she went down to the river side, was astonished that she did not appear, after having crossed over, on his side of the stream. Whereupon, after waiting some time, he exclaimed, 'Where in the world is the woman gone! leaving me here toiling and sweating without my dinner or my drink!'

"On this he went down to the river bank, and there saw the Pratyeka Buddha and his wife. 'OhI' thought he, 'I see the reason of the delay! this fellow has been amusing himself with my wife, whilst I have been left dinnerless!' so he took up a big stick that was lying near and began to belabor the Pratyeka Buddha with it till he was tired.

"Then the mendicant, having said nothing, rose into the air, and by his spiritual power flew through space to another spot!

"Seeing this miracle the woman turned to her lord and said, 'Alas! master, what have you done? see what a crime you have committed, and all through your own perverse thoughts, for in truth this was a good man, and incapable of anything like you wickedly imagined.'

"Then the peasant who had beaten the Pratyeka Buddha was filled with remorse, and said to his wife, 'Dear woman! I see nothing for it, but that you and I should immediately give up the

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