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Thus slowly and with dignified.gait approaching the Royal Palace, the Lord of the World and his disciples entered into the apartments prepared for them, and, taking their seats, partook of the hospitality of the king, who himself attended to all their wants and waited on them in person. Then, after the meal, having provided water for washing, the several attendants and the royal household took smaller cushions, and placing them in front of Buddha, they also sat down and awaited his instruction.

Then the king began to reflect how he might retain the society of the world-honoured, and keep him in the vicinity of the royal city. Reflecting thus, he remembered the suitableness of the Bamboogarden for the purpose—so quiet,and shady! free from all noxious insects and pollution. He resolved, therefore, to offer this garden as a free gift to Buddha and the congregation. Having done so, the Lord accepted it at once, and the Raja, having arisen and taken a pitcher,1 poured water on the hands of Buddha, and said, "Illustrious Lord of the World! I give in free charity to you and your followers the Bamboo garden, situated not far from my capital. Oh! would that of your condescension you would receive the same at my hands I"

Then Buddha, having recited some verses in token of his intention to preach in this grove for the salvation of men, arose and departed, exhorting his followers henceforth to resort to the Garden of Bamboos as their place of rendezvous for religious teaching.

[The above account is according to the school of the Mahisasakas.]

[Kiouen XLIV contains 6,068 words, and cost 3.034 taels.]


§1. Now at this time there resided in Rajagrihaa very wealthy nobleman, called Kalanda, possessed of untold riches, and living in a place like that of Vaisravana, the Northern King. Now, this Kalanda had a bamboo garden not far from the city, which he had purchased and arranged for the purpose of entertaining religious persons

1 This pitcher is evidently the teapot-shaped utensil seen in plates xxxiv and xxxv, Tree and Serpent Worship.

who passed to and fro. These religious persons (tao-sse) were called Ajtvakas.1 [This is what the Kasyapiyas say.]

Now at this time, the four Kings who preside over the world sent certain blue-clad Yakshas to the garden of Kalanda to sweep and adorn it, for the purpose of receiving in the proper manner the Lord of the World, who was coming there to rest. Then the Ajivakas who dwelt there, rising early in the morning, saw these blue-clad messengers performing their mission and sweeping the garden. Seeing this, they came near and said, "Sirs! who are you, and whence do you come?" Then they answered and said, " Good sirs! we are Yakshas, sent by the Kings of the four quarters for the purpose of preparing this garden for the arrival of the Lord of the World, who is coming hither to abide for a time."

Then the Ajivakas, having understood this, went at sunrise to the house of Kalanda, and said, " Honorable sir! this morn, ere the stars had yet disappeared, we saw in your garden certain heavensent messengers sweeping and watering it, and otherwise engaged in preparing it, as they said, for the arrival of the Lord of the World, who is coming there to dwell for a time [during the season of the rains)."

Then Kalanda, having heard this news, went forth to receive the Lord of the World, and, meeting him about half a yojana from the garden, he bowed down before him, and then rising up, he took in his right hand his water pitcher, and pouring some pure water on the Lord's hand, he begged him to receive the garden as a free gift. To whom the Lord replied, " Such gifts of land or houses, or clothes or riches, are needless for me. I have already received all things; but for my disciples in perpetuity I will accept your offering of the garden." And so it was bestowed by Kalanda, for the perpetual use of the priests [congregation]. And so, when Buddha dwelt in Rajagriha, the thousand disciples who accompanied him abode in this Kalanda-venu-vana.

The History of Maha Kasyapa. §2. The Mahasanghikas say as follows:

1 The Chinese Tika explains " Ajivaka" as equivalent to "here

Not far from Rajagriha there is a district called Mahasudra and a hamlet belonging to this called by the same name. In this dwelt a certain rich Brahman, whose name was Nyagrodha Kava; his wealth was so great that while Bimbasara raja had one thousand yoke of oxen for ploughing, this Brahman kept only one less, for fear the king should be envious if he possessed a greater number than himself. As for other cattle, they were simply innumerable, like the sparks of the fire for number. Now, his wife having brought forth a son under a Pipal tree, the child was called Pippalayana. He was very lovely, and of a beautiful golden complexion, and it came to pass that at his birth a garment of rare workmanship was brought by the Deva for the use of the child, and hung upon the tree; hence his name of Pippalayana [the robe being so called]. His parents procured for him the best nurses for the various purposes required—viz., to fondle, to feed, to accompany in out-of-door walks, to play and laugh. So dearly did his parents love this their only child that they could not bear him to be out of their sight. And so he grew apace, and at eight years of age was initiated into the religious customs of the Brahman caste, and instructed in the various books belonging to his religion —to wit, the four Vedas and the various treatises on writing and calculation, the mantras, the Chhandas, the different sections relating to thefive elements, the heavenly constellations, the seasons, the casting of events (lucky and unlucky days). Moreover, he learnt all the polite arts, and acquainted himself generally with the literature of the time, do that there was no subject on which he was not fully informed. Yet, notwithstanding all this, his mind was ill at ease and dissatisfied, desiring to find rest and freedom from sorrow.

Now, it came to pass that as Pippalayana grew up, his parents wished him to marry and fulfil the duty he owed to his ancestors by continuing the race. But Pippalayana spake thus : " Papa! mama!1 I desire no such event. I wish to avoid marriage and live

tic." It is evident from Burnouf (Introd. p. 389, n. 2) and the Lo lita Vistara (p. 378, n, 4) that the Upakama spoken of (supra, p. 245) was one of these heretics. From this and many other passages it would seem that the Chinese expression "tao-jin" does not always mean a " Buddhist," but a religious person of any denomination. \ This is the phonetic rendering of the Chinese.

the life of a Brahmana!" Then his parents began to remonstrate with him: "Let not our son say so; but first fulfil your duty to your ancestors, that you may find a place in Heaven, and then when old you may retire from the world and live as a recluse I" But their appeal was in vain! The youth replied that he desired to be free from such attachments. In vain they urged the desolation of their house and family from lack of descendants. Pippalayana still pleaded for freedom. At length, after his parents had three times repeated their entreaties, the youth took some very fine Jambunada gold,1 and desired a celebrated artist to make from it the figure of a female, and then, taking this to his parents, he said, " Papa! mama! I desire not to marry; but if it be your wish that I should, then find me a wife as beautiful and as resplendent as this figure, and I will comply with your request !"8 On hearing this his parents were much afflicted, and his father Nyagr6dha, going up on the roof of his house, sat down in great sorrow, and remained there in silence. At this time, a certain Brahman friend coming to the house of Nyagrodha, saluted it thus: "May continued prosperity and increased happiness attend this house!" Then, seeing the master was not there, he inquired, "Where is the lord of the house?"

On this, they told him how the matter stood; whereupon he goes at once to his benefactor, and salutes him with much respect. The Brahman householder remains silent, until his friend having urged him to open his heart and relate his grief, Nyagrodha tells him all, and appeals to him for help and sympathy; and finally, through his friend's kind offices, a wife is found for his son.8

[Kiouen XLV contains 6,176 words, and cost 3.088 taels].

1 Heavenly gold. Vish. Pur. 168.

e The resemblance of this narrative with the Kusa-jataka is singular. 3 Her name was Bhadraka. Both she and Kasyapa, even after


Now it so happened that as Pippala and Bhadraka were sleeping in the same apartment, but separately, that the latter unconsciously in her sleep threw her arm from off the couch and let her hand touch the ground. At this time, Pippala, being awake, observed a small black snake creeping on the floor and approaching the spot where the hand of Bhadraka was exposed. Softly rising up and going to the spot, he took her hand, and, raising her arm, he placed it gently upon the couch and covered it from sight. But Bhadraka, roused by the touch of her husband's hand, awoke and began to reproach him with having had some other intention than that which caused him thus to act.

On this, he explained the circumstance and she was


Thus they passed twelve years and lived in perfect purity. At length Bhadraka, in the preparation of some oil-cake for the cattle, was grieved to find the number of insects, and so on, which were destroyed with the seeds when being ground. And from this her attention was turned to the universal prevalence of suffering and sorrow in the world. Having become very sad in consequence of this discovery, she communicated her thoughts to Pippala, who, in his turn, was so impressed with the conviction that the world is full of sorrow, that he left his home and became a recluse.

Accidentally meeting with Tathagata, he became attached to him. After a time having given his Sanghati robe to Buddha, and received the soiled and unsightly one of Buddha's in return, he became A Bahat, and because he belonged to the family of the Kasyapas he was called the venerable Maha Kasyapa. [He founded a school who adhered to the Telesdhutanga1 rules.]

marriage, lived perfectly pure lives. Kasyapa was the founder of the ascetic school in Buddhism; his followers were called Easy- apiyas.

1 E. M. 9, Catena 256.

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