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the morrow departed to the northern country of Uttara to beg his food, and having received it, he sat down on the margin of the Anavatapta Lake and consumed it, after which he returned to the wood where he abode.

Then Uravilva Kasyapa, having taken his meal, at the conclusion of the day, came to Buddha and excused himself on the plea of forgetfulness, for having neglected to come to call him to his meal; but, said he, "I have not forgotten now to bring you a store of our best food." On this, the world-honoured exposed the folly of Kasyapa's conduct, telling him exactly what his thoughts had been, and how in consequence he had gone to Uttara and eaten his meal by the side of the Anavatapta Lake.

On this, Uravilva Kasyapa thought thus with himself, "this great Shaman possesses much spiritual power and is of great personal dignity; but he has not yet attained to the condition of a Rahat as I have." [This account is according to that held by the Nijasas;1 according to the Mahasafighika school, the account is as follows:—At this time, there was held in the place where Uravilva Kasyapa lived an annual assembly called yih suh-yih (fair-day),2 on which occasion, the people were accustomed to give liberally to the Kasyapas, food and other commodities. Thousands and tens of thousands of men and women came there from all Magadha. They brought with them all sorts of merchandise for sale, so that whatever one needed might be purchased. So Kasyapa began to think thus, "if this Shaman comes here tomorrow, then all the people will be looking at him and will think nothing about me, and, therefore, they will supply me with no food or other necessary." So he went to the place where Buddha dwelt and said,—Excellent Sir! to-morrow there will be a great concourse of people at Uravilva, and much noise and confusion. Now you, I know, prefer peace and quiet, and you would rather dwell in this your peaceable retreat than in the middle of such a crowd as will be there. Remain therefore in this place, and do not disturb yourself to come to me.]

1 This is undoubtedly the school of the Mahisasakas, vide Wassilief, p. 232, n. 3.

8 The preparation for this "fair " is evidently the subject of fig. 2, Plate XXXV, Tree and Serpent Worship.

[Here follows an account of the visit of all the Garuda Rajas, the Naga Rajas, etc., to Buddha, also of Buddha's miraculous appearance to Kasyapa in a remote corner of the forest.]

And so it came to pass that the world-honoured one, having received his food from the hands of Kasyapa, again returned to the Tcharnaka wood and took his usual seat there. At this time the Kashaya-coloured rohe, which the world-honoured wore over his other robes, was completely tattered and in rags; and just then a man who had died in the house of the rich Brahman Senayana was laid in the wood where corpses are deposited. The world-honoured one perceiving this, went and took the soiled robe that enveloped the corpse, thinking within himself where he could find a tank of water in which to wash it, and so make a clean garment for himself. Whilst thinking thus, Sakra, the God of the Trayastrifishas Heavens, knowing what occupied the mind of Buddha, caused a lake of water to appear suddenly, just fit for the purpose, filled with pure water, and then coming forward he addressed Buddha and said, "Let the world-honoured one use this tank of pure water for the purpose of washing the soiled robe of the corpse!" Accordingly, Buddha complied, and washed the robe [in the same way, a great stone is brought from beyond the iron circle of mountains, on which he might lay out the cloth to rub it, and another stone on which to dry it in the sun, whilst a tree-Deva bent down a branch of a tree for him to hang up the robe, before drying it in the sun]. Then Uravilva Kasyapa coming to him as before, was surprised to see the lake of water, and the stones, and inquired whence they came; nevertheless, on hearing the account he was not converted, and still thought that Buddha was not such a Rahat as himself.

On another occasion, Kasyapa having come to invite Buddha as usual to return with him to take his food, Buddha besought Kasyapa to go on a little way in front, on which, by his spiritual power, he transported himself to Sumeru, and plucking some fruit from the Djambu tree that grows there, he returned in a moment and took his seat in the Hall of the Fire Spirit. When Kasyapa arrived there, astonished to find his guest already seated, he asked in some surprise whence he had come, and by what way. On hearing the history of Buddha's visit to Mount Sumeru, he was lost in wonder; but yet would not acknowledge him to be a Rahat like himself. [In the same way, he went again to Sumeru and brought an Amra fruit, and other fruit and flowers, with the same effect.]

[Kiouen XLI contains 6144 words and cost 3.072 taels.]


Again, as in the last chapter, Buddha goes in a moment to the Trayastrifishas Heavens, and there plucks a flower called Parijataka. On another occasion, the spiral-haired disciples found themselves unable to chop the wood, or, if they were stooping down, to lift themselves up again, or, if they were standing upright, to stoop down, or, if the hatchet were in the wood, to get it out. Then they were convinced that it was all the result of the great spiritual power of that Shaman.1 Accordingly, when Uravilva Kasyapa went to the wood again, Buddha asked him about these misadventures, and told him that now they would be able to chop their wood as they wished; and so it came to pass. Yet Kasyapa was not able to accept him as a Bahat. And so on another occasion the spiral-haired disciples were unable to light their fires till Buddha permitted them. And on another occasion they could not put their fires out. At another time, when the disciples of Kasyapa had entered the Nairafijana river, and were nearly

1 This is evidently the scene by the lower tablet, Plate xxxii, Tree and Serpent Worship.

frozen to death with the cold, Buddha caused five hundred bright charcoal fires to appear on the shore, by which they might warm themselves; and then again the fires were extinguished without any apparent cause. At another time, the disciples wished to dip up some water in their pitchers (Kundikas), but were unable to do so. At another time, Kasyapa found himself unable to ascend into the air as usual—or having ascended, to come down to earth. At another time, the fire pots would not stand still, but moved about in every direction. At another time, when a fierce storm came on, and all the surrounding country was flooded, the place where Buddha sat was perfectly dry, whereupon Easyapa, seeing the suddenness of this storm and the vast downpour of rain, began to think, "surely this Shaman must be drowned"; whereupon he took a boat to search for his body, and after a time found him peacefully seated on a dry spot of ground, surrounded on every side by water. Whereupon, Kasyapa having addressed Buddha, he, in a moment passed through the air and alighted in the middle of the boat.1 [The MahasSnghikas affirm that after each miracle s still asserted that Buddha was no Bahat as he was (Ch. ed.)]

1 I think it very likely that this is the scene depicted, fig. 2, Plate xxxi, Tree and Serpent Worship. The left band pillar of the Eastern gateway at Sanchi seemsd evoted to this Kasyapa history; moreover, the grouping itself is highly suggestive; the great stone in front, the four disciples on shore and the one in the boat (the other figure is undoubtedly Kasyapa), and Buddha himself in the middle. Moreover, the half immersed trees show that the district was visited with a flood.

At last, Buddha plainly said that Kasyapa was no Eahat, that he had not entered on the path, and therefore could enjoy none of the fruits of such a condition. On this, Kasyapa professed willingness to become a disciple of Buddha, and finally opened his mind to his five hundred followers, who all confessed that they had long wished for this step, only they had been afraid to propose it. Then Kasyapa and all his disciples went to the place where Buddha was, and respectfully stood on one side. On this, Buddha addressed Kasyapa and said, " You must take off your deer skin doublets, and take your pitchers (kundikas) and your staves, and your fire vessels, and all the vessels in which you held the blood of your victims, and your fanciful head dresses, and fling them all into the Nairanjana river. And so they did, whilst from the river every sort of strange noise proceeded; after this they all came and worshipped at Buddha's feet and became disciples.

At this time, Nadi Kasyapa, with his spiral head-dress, dwelt some way down on the shore of the Nairafijana River. And it so happened that, when he observed these various implements and the leathern doublet's floating down the stream, he was filled with fear and anxiety, and exclaimed, " alas ! alas! surely my brother has been slain by robbers, and these are the things which they have flung in the river. I will go and see whether it is so or not." Thinking thus, he first of all sent some of his disciples before him to spy out what the calamity was. These soon returned and reported all things perfectly safe, and then Nadi Kasyapa himself, with 300 followers, went to the spot [and were soon converted, as his brother had been). That Gaya Kasyapa, seeing the various utensils of the fire worshippers floating down the stream past the place where he dwelt, also thought with himself, "Surely my brothers have

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