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and sixty yojanas, his head reached to the spot where Buddha was, while his tail was still in his palace. Then his head, like the prow of a ship, or the trunk of an elephant, emitting all sort of flame and lightning flash, and uttering every sort of terrible sound, bent before the world-honoured one, who, on his part, only said, “Welcome, Elapatra! It is long since I have seen you. Welcome, oh ! Nâga Râja !”

[Kiouen XXXVII contains 6,167 words, and cost 3.083 taels.]


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§ 1. Then Elapatra, perceiving that he was known, transformed himself into the shape of a Manava youth, and approaching Buddha, bowed down before him, and then, standing apart, repeated these verses

“In what does true independence consist ?

What is it that really pollutes and deceives a man?
And who is the pure and unspotted man ?

And what is it that brings delusion ?" etc. etc. (Then Buddha replies as before.) Then Elapatra added, by way of inquiry, the Gâtha following“By doing what, and observing what rules,

And acquiring what ground of merit,
May one attain an excellent condition as Deva or man,

And so lay up in store future blessedness ?”
To which Bhagavat immediately said, in reply-

Ministering to the worthy! doing harm to none !
Always ready to render reverence to whom it is due,
Loving righteousness and righteous conversation,
Ever willing to listen to that which may profit another,
Rejoicing to meditate on the true Law,
And to reflect on the words of Divine Wisdom,
Practising every kind of self-discipline and pure life,
Always doing good to those around you.




This is indeed the wisdom of a true disciple.”


Then Elapatra, regarding Buddha with attention, began to weep; on which Buddha inquired why he did so. On this Elapatra rejoined, “I remember in days gone by, that I was a follower of Kâsyapa Buddha, and because I destroyed a tree called Ila’I wa born in my present shape, and was called 'Elapatra.' Then this same Kâsyapa told me that after an indefinite period, when Sâkya Buddha came into the world, that I should again receive a human shape, and so by becoming a disciple attain final deliverance, and it is for this reason I weep!” Then Elapatra, having taken refuge in Buddha, the Law and the Church, departed, having first offered to Narada the money, and the Nâga girl, both of which he refused."

After this, Narada and his companions became disciples, and because he was of the family of Katyayana, he was called “the great Katyayana ;” and of him it was Buddha said—“He of all my disciples shall be most distinguished in the definition of words, and fixing their true meaning.” And then Buddha narrated the following history respecting Katyayana in his former births—“I remember in years gone by, in the middle of this Bhadra Kalpa, when men's lives were twenty thousand years in duration, that there was a certain Buddha born, whose name was Kasyapa. This Buddha also preached the Law in this Deer park, near Benares. A certain religious person, having come near to hear this Buddha preach, made the following vow—May I also in future years become like one of these disciples, and be privileged to attend on the person of a true Buddha.' This disciple, oh Bhikshus! was the present Narada, who is none other than the great Katyayana.”

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Story of Sobhiya.

§ 2. At this time, in North India, there was a city called Taxasila

1 This story seems to be the subject of one of the groups at Bharahut, lately discovered by the Archaeological Surveyor of India, and thus described by him—“A bas-relief representing a Naga chief kneeling before the Bôdhi tree, attended by a number of Någa followers, with this inscription, 'Erapâto Nâgaraja Bhagavata vandate,' i.e., ' Erapatra, the Nâga Râja, worships Buddha. V. Report of Archæol. Surveyor of India, 1874. V. also Jul, ii, p. 152.

Vide “Manual of Buddhism,” p. 254.


[severed rock (Ch. ed.)]. There was a certain family living in that city, in which were born unexpectedly two children-twins—the one a boy, the other a girl. Then the parents, having sent for a renowned soothsayer, had the horoscope of these children cast at

The wise man pronounced the tokens of the female child unlucky. The mother, having heard this, began to think with herself—“This child will be the cause of much anxiety to us, she will never find an honourable condition of married life.” Having thought thus, she inquired after a woman belonging to the Pari. brajakas,' and begged her to take care of the child, and that she would pay all expenses.

So, then, it happened that this child grew up under the care of the Paribrajaka woman, and was duly instructed in all the wisdom of the day, and grew more and more comely as she increased in years. At this time a certain Paribrajaka from North India, having met this woman, and being much struck with her beauty, fell in love with her; but, to avoid a public scandal, they agreed that there should be a disputation between them, and whoever prevailed that the other should be slave and servant. Accordingly, having met, the disputation began, and the female being defeated, she joined herself to the company of the other; and taking his slippers and water-vessel, in token of her servitude, she went her way. After having come together, a change took place in the woman's appearance, which caused the man to forsake her; but before doing so she said, “It is because I have lost my beauty that you are about to leave me, and I shall die alone and neglected.” On this the Paribrajaka said to the woman, this golden ring, and if you give birth to a girl, use it for your mutual support; but if you give birth to a boy, then commit the ring to his care, and bid him set out and search till he find me, his father, and by this ring I shall know him.” And so, taking his leave of the woman, he turned, and went on his way. Then the woman, travelling about, came at length to the village of Ma-tou (Mathura ?); and there, in a secluded spot, called the White Cloud Valley, she brought forth a son, in the district-ball, and so she called the child Sobhiya [district court (Ch. ed.)]. Then

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2 Vide M. B. 254. The Chinese tika defines the word as a derer" (hing-hing).


all the people round about, seeing her destitute condition, moved with pity and commiseration, brought every necessary article of food and clothing for her use and the use of the child. And so the boy grew up, instructed by his mother in the three Vedas, and all the liberal arts. 1

At length Sobhiya one day asked his mother who his father was, and where he was to be found; on which his mother said, “Your sire, dear child, lives somewhere in South India; go, then, and seek for him”; at the same time she gave him the ring as a means of recognition, and forthwith the young man set out. So, travelling from town to town, and village to village, he arrived at length in South India ; and there, hearing of a celebrated champion of logic, who challenged all comers to dispute with him, Sobhiya, not knowing it was his father, forthwith sounded the drum of the law, and said—“I am ready to meet in disputation any Paribrajaka, man, or woman, who dares to encounter me in discussion.” Forthwith the Paribrajaka came forward, and being immediately moved with feelings of love at the sight of the youth, asked him—“Who are you, and whence come you ?” On this an explanation took place, and, by means of the ring, the father was convinced that the youth was no other than his son. So, taking him, he instructed him in every religious practice, including the power of dhyâna (ecstasy), and other acquirements connected with the profession of a hermit-and after that he died.

Then Sobhiya, his father being dead, gradually journeyed on, till at last, coming to the sea-coast, he there made him a Pansal to dwell in, and took up his abode there. And so he remained for a time practising the power of abstract meditation (dhyâna) and the five spiritual faculties; and so he boasted that he had acquired the dignity and privileges of a Rahat.

Now, Sobhiya’s mother, dying, was born in the Trâyastrinshas heavens; at which time the world-honoured one, having obtained supreme wisdom, was preaching in the Deer park near Benares. The news of this having reached the thirty-three heavens, it came also to the ears of the Devî, the mother of the young man Sobhiya. On this she exercised her spiritual power of sight, to find out where her son was; and seeing that he was occupying a Pan


Tayo vede Sabbasippáni ca. Fausbõll, 5 Jatakas, p. 32 n.

sal by the sea-shore, she appeared to him in a vision by night, and discouraged him from thinking he was a Rahat, and bade him go seek the instruction of Bhagavat in the Deer park. Then Sobhiya, not being disobedient to the heavenly visitor, set out on his journey; and wherever he came he challenged all disputants to meet him in discussion. So he drew near to Benares, and there, hear. ing of the celebrated six teachers, Purna, Kâsyapa, and so on, he immediately sought their company, and having saluted them, he arose and stood on one side.

[Kiouen XXXVIII contains 6,231 words, and cost 3.117 taels.]


§ 1. Then Sobhiya inquired of Purna, Kâsyapa, and the others, what their system of religion was, and proposed various questions to them respecting subjects which caused him doubt; but their answers were only confusing and unsatisfactory. He turned away, therefore, and sought the company of Masakali Gosala, and the other Nirgranthas, with the same success. At length he determined to seek the company of the Great Shaman (Götama), and lay bare his doubts before him, and request a right solution of them. So he came, and found the world-honoured one bright (as the moon) in the midst of the stars of heaven, glorious among the assembly of Bhikshus who surrounded him. Then, prostrating bimself at his feet, he rose up, and took his place on one side ; after which he addressed the world-honoured thus“I am Sobhiya, a man of religion (Bôdhi), And on this account I have travelled far and come here, Because I have doubts, and I desire to ask a learned man On my account to explain them, and satisfy me; Oh, would that you would solve my doubts, And answer me, one by one, the questions I put, And so, explaining these things as I name them,

Gradually open out to me the clear light of truth.” To whom the world-honoured one replied

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