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in hell; on which Buddha exclaimed, "Alas! alas! for Udraka Ramaputra! Oh, that he had survived to hear the saving words of my Law! alas! alas!"

Then Buddha considered also what the condition of Alara was; and a Deva, invisible in the air, exclaimed that Alara Kalama had died but yesterday, on which Buddha, by his eyes of Wisdom, found that he also had been born in one of the Arupa Heavens, where he would live for sixty-three thousand great Kalpas, after which he would be born on earth as a Raja, and after that in hell; on which again Buddha exclaimed, "Alas! alas ! would that Alara had survived that he might have heard the saving words of my Law! alas! alas!"

On Turning the Wheel of the Excellent Law.1

§ 2. Buddha, having thus considered who of all living creatures was in a condition first to hear his Law, remembered the five Rishis who had dwelt with him during the time of his severe penance, and perceiving their fitness for it, he resolved to turn the wheel of the Law first for their benefit. He then considered where they dwelt, and using the power of his Divine sight he perceived that they were living in the Deer park near Benares, occupying one part of it and another according to circumstances. Then the worldhonoured one, having stood for a little time near the Bodhi tree, turned away, and then gradually advanced towards the country of Benares; as the Gatha says

"The world-honoured one, wishing to preach to Ramaputra, Bending his mind to discover where he was living, Found that his present life ended, he was now in Heaven, Then his mind turned to the five Rishis, and he desired to go to them."

1 This expression "turn the wheel of the Law" (dhammacakkam pavatteti) is better rendered "establish the dominion of the Law," in other words "the dominion of Religion." The evident contrast between Buddha, as a Chakravarti Raja, and a Spiritual Teacher or Ruler, observed throughout this work, will help to show that "dhammacakkam" is only an expression used for religious dominion, instead of Regal or Secular authority. Vide Childer's Pali Diet., sub voce Dhamma.

Then Mara Raja, the Wicked one, seeing Buddha's intention to leave the neighbourhood of the Bodhi tree, was filled with sorrow and consternation, and forthwith hastened to the spot to meet him; having arrived, he addressed him thus—"Hail! worldhonoured! I pray thee leave not this spot! but let the worldhonoured remain here in rest as he desires." To whom the World- honoured one replied, "Mara Riga PisunaI trouble not yourself further about me! In days gone by, you desired to perplex and baffle me in vain; at the present time, possessed as I am of Supreme Wisdom, your efforts will be worse than useless."

Then the world-honoured, having advanced from the Tree of Knowledge, proceeding by easy stages, came first of all to the village called Chandra [beautiful and bright (Ch. ed.)]. From this he advanced to the village of Tchundajira [without-horn-strike (OIL. ed.)). In the middle of the road, leading to this place, he met a mendicant Brahman called Upakama1 [come (or, future) business (Ch. ed.)]. This Brahman, having looked at Buddha, addressed him thus, " Venerable one ! offspring of G6tama ! Whence comes it that thy form is so perfect, thy countenance so lovely, thy appearance so peaceful? What system of religion is it that imparts to thee such joy and such peace?" To whom the worldhonoured replied, as he proceeded on his way, in these Gathas —

"I have conquered and overcome all worldly influences,
I have perfected in myself every kind of wisdom,
I live now in the world, spotless and without taint,
For ever have I cast off the trammels of desire," etc.

Then Upakama, the Brahman, further inquired of Buddha whither he was going, and on hearing he was going to Benares, he inquired for what purpose he was going there, to whom the world-honoured replied in the following Gathas:

"I now desire to turn the wheel of the excellent law;
For this purpose am I going to that city of Benares,
To give light to those enshrouded in darkness,
And to open the gate of Immortality to men."

1 Named "Upagana" by Burnouf (Introduction, p. 389) and "Upaka" by Spencer Hardy (Manual of Buddhism, p. 184), vide Etudes Bouddhigues, by M. Leon Feer, p. 15.

On this, Upakama again inquired as to the meaning of what Buddha had said, that he had become a Rahat, and had overcome sorrow; to which the world-honoured one replied in these Gathas: "Know then that I have completely conquered all evil passion, I have for ever got rid'of the remnants of all personal being; Every evil law throughout the world destroyed, I am, therefore, called the True and Perfect Teacher (Lord)." [There are other Gathas also which speak of the folly of one, who, though himself enlightened, seeks not to enlighten others—even as a lamp enlightens all in the house—so Buddha, by the light of his religious system desires, to dispense light to all.]

Then Upakama cried out," Venerable Gotama, yonder is your way," and himself turned to the eastward.

Then a certain Deva, who in days of yore had been a relative of Upakama's, on this account wishing to do him some benefit, and to point him to the way of deliverance and of rest and peace (without fear) came near and uttered the following Gathas: "You have now met with the Supreme Teacher of gods and men, You know not that this world-honoured one has attained the

true condition of B6dhi; Whither goest thou then—immersed in heresy; Wheresoever thou goest, sorrow and disappointment will be thine. Rejecting thus the advances of the one true teacher, Deserting him and offering no religious alms, What service can thine hand or foot render thee, In him alone can be found the source of the true faith." Then the world-honoured one gradually advancing from Tchirnasatra [the same as Tchundajira (Ch. ed.)] came to the village of Karnapura [the city of the ear (Ch. ed.)); from thence he advanced to Sarathi [harmonious-royal-city (Ch. ed..)], thence he proceeded to Rohita vastu [obstruction-city1 (Ch. ed.)]. From this city he advanced straight to the banks of the Ganges, and there encountering the owner of a ferry boat, he addressed him thus, " Hail! respectable sir! I pray you take me across the river in your boat!" To whom the boatman replied, "If you can pay me the fare, I will willingly take your honour across the river."

1 Compare Attak, "Archseolog. Survey," ii, 7.

To whom Buddha said," Whence shall I procure money to pay you
your fare, I, who have given up all worldly wealth and riches, and
who am now of no more worth than a broken pot or a cracked earthen
jar; my heart now is beyond the influence of favour or dislike;
the man who would kill me, or would bestow upon me all honour,
both are alike to me—where then shall I get the money you ask
of me as a fare?" To whom the boatman answered, " If you can
give me the money I will ferry you across; for this indeed is my
only means of livelihood, for the support of my wife and children."
Then the world-honoured one, perceiving a flock of geese flying
from the south to the north bank of the Ganges, immediately ad-
dressed the boatman in the following Gathas:

"See yonder geese in fellowship pass o'er the Ganges,
They ask not as to fare of any boatman,
But each by his inherent strength of body,
flies through the air as pleases him,
So, by my power of spiritual energy,
Will I transport myself across the river,
Even though the waters on this southern bank
Stood up as high and firm as Sumeru." (And so he flies across.)

Then the boatman, having witnessed this miracle, began to upbraid himself, saying," alas! alas! that I should have seen the great religious merit of this holy one, and not have given him a free passage across the river. Alas! alas! what an opportunity have I lost!" and reproaching himself thus he fell to the ground in a swoon. At length coming to himself, he arose from the earth and went straight to Bimbasara, King of Magadha, and told him all that had happened, hearing which the king made the following decree: "It is impossible to know in every case whether this spiritual ability of locomotion exists or not. Wherefore, I command that in every case when a religious mendicant desires to cross the river, that he be ferried over free of charge."

Then the world-honoured one, having transported himself thus over the river, kept up his flight towards the city of Benares. Now in that neighbourhood there was a certain dragon-tank, the dragon's name being "Sankha" [this means "serpent" (Ch. ed.)]. The world-honoured one having come to this spot and there alighted, the Naga Raja raised on the site a tower which was

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called Medika [this means earth-tower (Ch. ed.J]. And as Tathagata remained there, awaiting the time for asking alms, another tower was erected, called "awaiting-time-tower," even as the Gatha says:

"All the Buddhas at night time go not among men,
They await awhile till the time of fasting be over.
Those who beg at improper times have great sorrow;
Therefore it is an ordinance for ever, to abide the time."

Then Buddha entering in at the western gate of the city, proceeded in order through the streets asking alms — afterwards leaving the city and taking his place beside some water (the river), he sat down and ate; and then washing his (hands and feet) he proceeded northward by easy steps to the grove of Deer. As the Gatha says:

"In the Deer park, the carols of the various birds resounding,
The place where the holy ones of old have ever dwelt,
The shining body of the world-honoured one also
Slowly advanced towards that sacred spot, as the sun for glory."

Now when the five Rishis saw him approaching, they said one to another, " This is none other than that Shaman of the Gautama clan; he has lost all his spiritual power, and is now approaching with his body full of strength and grace; let us disregard him— let us offer him no reverence, let us not offer him an abode in our company." [Now Adjnata alone did not feel these sentiments in his heart, nevertheless he said nothing). And so the Gatha says:

"See this Gotama now approaching,
Let us Rishis not disagree,
We will pay him no reverence or worship,
for he is a man who has broken his vow."

So it happened that in this mood the five Rishis awaited the approach of the world-honoured one as he slowly advanced; but, at the same time, as they sat one beside the other, they were distressed beyond measure in their hearts, and desired above all things to rise to salute him. Even as the Sakuna bird (the eagle), caught in an iron net surrounded by fire, frets and tears his prison chains to get away, so did those five men vex their hearts to rise and pay the world-honoured one due reverence. At length, unable

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