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plied with his request, and the two went back together. No sooner had they got within a short distance of the shore than the monkey with all his strength gave a leap off the dragon's back, and scampered with all his might up to the top of the Udambara tree, whilst the dragon took up his position below. After a while, perceiving the monkey made no move as if to come down, the dragon addressed him and said, 'Come, my dear friend! be quick and come down, that I may carry you to my house as we agreed.' But the monkey remained quite silent, and gave no sign of an intention to come down; and so the dragon, after a long time, seeing no prospect of his coming down, began this Gatha and said—

"' My excellent monkey-friend, having taken your heart,
Come down quickly from the top of the tree,
I want to take you over to yonder forest,
To the place where there are trees and fruit of every kind.'

"Then the monkey thought with himself, 'what a fool this dragon is!' and immediately answered in a Gatha: "' Your plan, old fellow! is a very excellent one; But your wisdom is very little indeed. Just think now for a moment and reflect: Did you ever know a single creature without a heart? As for those forests—no doubt the fruits are beautiful, The Amra fruit, and all the rest you talked about, But do you know I prefer just now not to visit them, I would rather stop here and eat the Udambara fruit.'" Then Buddha said to his followers, "You should know that at this time I was the monkey, and that the dragon was Mara Pisuna, and as he could not catch me then by his stratagem, so neither has he now been able to entice me by his promise of bodily pleasures."

The Story of the Prudent Quail.

§ 6. Then the Bhikshus said again (as before). On which Buddha replied, "it was not on this occasion only that I was enabled to defeat Mara; but I remember in years gone by, ages ago, there was a certain hunter, who having found out a secluded spot where the birds were in the habit of alighting to feed, he himself proceeded to the place, and having arrived there, he made a certain covering of twigs and branches, and put it over himself as he lay in wait, seated on the ground. Then the birds seeing this green looking fabric when they came, alighted on the top of it, whilst the hunter seeing them on the top, slily put his hand through, and dragging them in killed them at his leisure. Then one bird having observed what happened, thought thus with himself: 'This hut-like covering seems to be able to move about from place to place, whereas all the trees are fixed and immovable; it is certain that there must be somebody beneath the covering.' And so this bird kept at a distance from it, and the hunter was not able to catch him. And so the Gatha says:

'" I observe that all the trees of the forest,
Whether it be that which is called the Vira,
Or the Aralu, or the Djambu tree,
Or the Motchara, or the Tchanda tree,
Are ever fixed and remain in one place,
Even from the time they first began to grow.
But this tree-like structure ever moves from place to place;
There must be some one alive beneath it,
And if that some one have an evil intention,
It is better that I should keep as far away as possible.
My heart is full of doubt and fear;
This wicked plan augurs no good to any of us;
For if he catches me he will certainly kill me,
Even as I remember in days gone by,
How I escaped from the net of the fowler.
Having gained wisdom by this experience, I will be off.'"

Then Buddha added, " at that time I was the wise bird, and Mara Pisuna was the hunter; and as I then discerned the stratagem of the fowler, so also was I able to perceive all the varied and hideous forms of the army of Mara." And so he ended with this Gatha: "If there be no deep reflection with men, How is it possible to obtain superior wisdom? Now, because of deep and long consideration Have I escaped the toils (of Mara) and obtained a condition of rest (wou-wei)."

The Offering of Food by the Two merchants.

§ 7. Now at this time, after Buddha had arrived at Perfect Enlightenment beneath the Bodhi tree, he remained seated there during seven complete days and nights, ravished with the happiness of his condition, and he ate nothing.

After this interval, having aroused himself from his rapture, seated on his lion throne, on the first night he considered (or realised) in their right order the twelve Nidanas, and then in a reverse order, he identified these as one and the same; he traced them from the first cause and followed them through every concurrent circumstance. From ignorance he ascertained came merit and demerit (sanscara); from these came consciousness (vijnyana); from this came names and things (nama, rupa); from this the six ayatanas; from these touch (sparsa); from this sensation (vedana); from this came love (trishna); from this cleaving to existence (upadana); from this reproduction; from this old age, and disease, and death; and from these the whole category of sorrows. Then the world honoured one having recognised these laws of connection, uttered the following Gathas:

"Whoever, practising the rules of a Brahmana, observes the world around him (tchu-fa, ye damma),

Sees at once that these things are produced by mutual relationship;

Perceiving that the world around him is produced by this mutual dependence,

He recognises then that all phenomena are but the result of cause and effect." 1

Then the world-honoured one, in the middle of the night, having fully gone through these successive links of the chain, began to return in a reverse order, and he concluded thus: destroy ignorance, and you destroy the cause of merit and demerit; destroy this, and you destroy consciousness, and so on. Then the worldhonoured one again uttered these Gathas:

"Whoever practises the rules of a Brahmana, and observes the world around him,

1 This seems to be the well-known stanza, "Ye damma hetu prabhasa," etc.

N

Immediately perceiving that things are produced by the laws of

mutual relationship; Seeing that things are thus the result of dependence on one or

the other, He concludes also that by destroying this relationship things

will come to an end." Then the world-honoured one, after the night had passed, having thoroughly investigated these laws, and perceived clearly that by destroying ignorance all is destroyed, and by the power of ignorance all is produced, repeated the following Gathas: "If there be a man practising the rules of a Brahmana, and observing the way of the world. Who forthwith perceives the rules of production and the consequent method of destruction, This man firmly fixed, having overcome the fascinations of Mara, Stands like yonder Sun Deva, illustrious in the midst of the

vault of space." Then the world-honoured one, having arisen from his lion throne, and going a short distance from the B6dhi Tree, sitting down with his legs crossed, remained immovable during other seven days, beholding the Bodhi Tree without removing his eyes; and as he sat he thought thus," Here have I loosed myself from all the concourse of sorrows, and have cast away the burden of them." [In after time a tower was erected on this spot, and called "not lifting the eyes."] Then after seven days, the world-honoured one, arising from his ecstasy, uttered the following Gathas: "In this sacred arena I have got rid of every source of sorrow, And seated here beholding that sacred throne on which I sat, I remember it was there I fulfilled my vows, I arrived at the

other shore, In that place it was I reached the full enjoyment of Bodhi."

Then the world-honoured one, proceeding from the tower called "the eye unmoved," proceeded slowly and with dignity to the place called Marichi (ray of light), where he walked up and down, and then sat down and again for seven days sat still with his legs crossed, enjoying the delights of emancipation. After seven days, having come from his condition of ecstasy, then Kala Naga Raja (black color), having come to the place where he was, paid homage to the world-honoured one, and took his place on one side and addressed him thus: "World-honoured! from remote ages, I have ever presented a place of abode (hall or palace) to the Buddhas on this very spot, and they have all deigned to accept the offering at my hands; deign then, oh Lord! to receive from me on this occasion also, this glorious palace in which you may abide."

[graphic]

Buddha accepts the gift, and after seven days he delivers for the benefit of Kala, the triple refuge, and the five laws, on which Kala becomes a disciple. After this a Naga Eaja, called Muchalinda, comes to the spot, and presents him with a similar abode; and when a storm occurred, wound round the hall with seven folds, and spread his seven-fold hood over Buddha to shelter him; and when Buddha arose from his ecstasy, he appeared before him as a Brahman youth, and told him what he had done. He also received the three refuges, and the five commandments, and became a disciple. After this the shepherd boy, who had protected Bodhisatwa, during his six years' penance, by planting some boughs of the Nyagrodha tree over him, and had in consequence been born in the Trayastrinshas heaven as a Deva, now came and worshipped the world-honoured one, and besought him to sit beneath that tree in contemplation. This the world-honoured one consented to do, and remained in rapt contemplation beneath that Nyagrodha tree for seven days. After this he delivered to the Deva the triple form of refuge and the five commandments, and he also became a disciple, the first of all the Devas.

[Kiouen XXXI contains 6,360 words, and cost 3.18 taels].

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