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"The fire will as soon lose its power to burn,
And the Sowings of the water cease and stand still;
As soon will the earth lose its power to hold and sustain,
Or the wind forget its power to blow and rest,
As the power of this one's virtuous life and conduct
Fail in the end to lead him to attain his vow.

Desist, then, from your efforts, for this holy one Shall certainly accomplish all he seeks to do." But still Mara, maddened with rage, advanced. Then the eight guardian angels of the place, whose names were these [eight names given] encouraged and comforted Bodhisatwa in various ways.

And so numerous other Devas came to strengthen him.

(The rest of this book is occupied in detailing the temptations of Mara, and the supporting influences of the Devas.)

[Kiouen XXIX contains 61,57 words, and cost 3.078 taels.]

CHAPTER XXX.

At this time, Bodhisatwa, having defeated and overpowered all the evil influences and devices of M£ra and his companions, proceeded to pass through the various grades of perfect self-abstraction (dhyana), and so having put away for ever all remnants of selfishness and evil desire, the first three watches of the night being passed, on the dawn of the fourth watch he attained to the perfect state of Enlightenment known as Anuttara Samyak Sambhodi. And so the Gatha says

"Three parts of that eventful night were gone, The stars that indicated the fourth part just appeared, All source of sorrow now destroyed, Bodhi attained; This is what men call "perfect Enlightenment." At this time the heavens, the earth, and all the spaces between the encircling zones of rock, were lit up with a supernatural splendour; whilst flowers and every kind of precious perfume fell down in thick profusion around Bhagavata, who had now attained perfect enlightenment; and whilst the earth shook six times, the Devas sang together in the midst of space, a joyous song, and rained down upon earth every kind of sweet flower—the Mandara, the Mahamandara, and so on; all kinds of garments, gold, silver, precious stones, and so on, also fell at the feet of Buddha. There was no ill-feeling or hatred in the hearts of men; but whatever want there was, whether of food, or drink, or raiment, was at once supplied; the blind received their sight, the deaf heard, and the dumb spake. Those who were bound in hell were released; and every kind of being,—beasts, demons, and all created things,— found peace and rest. And so the Gatha says

"At this time there was no angry thought on earth;
All sorrows disappeared, and there was great joy;
The mad and drunken came to their right mind,
And all who were in fear, were comforted."

Then the world-honoured one, having arrived at perfect enlightenment, uttered the following Gathas—

"Through ages past have I acquired continual merit,
That which my heart desired have I now attained.
How quickly have I arrived at the ever-constant condition,
And landed on the very shore of Nirvana.
The sorrows and opposition of the world,
The Lord of the Kama lokas, Mara Pisuna,
These are unable now to affect me, they are wholly destroyed;
By the power of religious merit and of wisdom are they cast

away.
Let a man but persevere with unflinching resolution,
And seek Supreme Wisdom, it will not be hard to acquire it;
When once obtained, then farewell to all sorrows,
All sin and guilt are for ever done away."

This was the |very first utterance of Tathagata after attaining Supreme Wisdom.

[Kiouen XXX contains 6,540 words and cost 3.27 taels.]

CHAPTER XXXI.

§ 1. At this time, when Bodhisatwa, pointing to the earth at early dawn, overcame and destroyed the devil and his followers, the earth shook six times, and up to the very highest point of space was the reverberation heard.

Then all the people of the world, observing these strange phenomena, inquired anxiously one of another as to their meaning, and further, they consulted the Rishis and soothsayers as to the meaning of these strange portents. At length these various Rishis and soothsayers replied, "In the country of Magadha, near the village of Gaya, there has been a deadly contest betwixt one who has left his home to become a king of the highest law, and one who seeks to be king of the world of sin; and the former has just prevailed, and beaten down the latter; and soon he will begin to preach and establish his kingdom amongst men, by declaring the tidings of his most excellent doctrine. And so the Gatha says (to the same effect].

At this time also, Suddh6dana Raja, unable to sleep through restlessness and fear, was informed by his Brahman soothsayers that if he would wait awhile with patience, they would explain the cause. Meanwhile, Maya, the mother of Buddha, who had acquired a heavenly body, taking the form of a hand-maiden, descended from heaven to the spot where Suddhodana, and Yasodhara, the mother of Rahula, were, and spake thus," Maharaja, be it known to you that on this night, your son, Siddartha, has attained supreme wisdom, and on this account the earth shook."

Again the Devas of the Rupa worlds, perceiving all the phenomena we have before named, were also filled with doubt as to their meaning, on which the world-honoured one uttered the following words with his own lion voice—" Now have I entirely cut myself away from the bondage of all impure desires. The lustful heart is entirely destroyed, and all sources of sorrow; the waters shall no longer flow, no further form of life shall I receive, no more to be tossed upon the waves of misery, I have crossed over and for ever escaped."

Then all those Devas, having heard these words, reflected that Tathagata had obtained complete deliverance, and then their hearts rejoiced, they exulted and were unable to repress their feelings of triumph, they scattered flowers and poured down the choicest unguents and perfumes. Meanwhile, Mara Pisuna, witnessing all this, sat down at some distance from Tathagata, his heart filled with grief, and whilst he pretended to draw something on the ground, he thought with himself thus—" How is it that I, who am able to hold in my power both Sara and all the other Devas, have been defeated, with all my host of followers, by this Shaman of the Sakya race?"

[graphic]

The Story of the Eesolute Merchant.

§ 2. In explanation of this we must have recourse to some subsequent teaching of Buddha, when all the Bhikshus were gathered round him and inquired thus—" Oh! seldom-seen Tathagata! we fain would know by what power of resolution and fixed determination the world-honoured one has attained to this glorious condition of perfection." On which Tathagata rejoined, "Know ye, O Bhikshus! it was not on this occasion only that I have exercised this resolution and power of fixed determination (virya), so as to arrive at the condition of Sambodhi and the seven1 Bodhyangas; but I remember, in years gone by, how by the same power of perseverance I recovered a very precious Mani gem." Then all the Bhikshus requested Buddha on their account to explain the particulars of this event. At this time Buddha addressed them as follows—" Attend, then, O ye Bhikshus, and consider well what I say. I remember in years gone by that I was a merchant prince who entered the sea in order to gather precious gems, and whilst so engaged I obtained one Mani gem of inestimable value; but suddenly, after getting possession of it, I let it fall into the sea, and so lost it. Then, having taken a ladle, I began with fixed determination to empty out the water of the great sea, wishing to dry it up with a view to recover the gem. Then the Sea-spirit, observing what was done, forthwith reflected thus with himself— 'This man is foolish and ignorant; he has no wisdom or judgment; for how can he hope with a ladle to empty out the water of the

1 Yide Eitel, sub-voce.

wide and boundless ocean, and then the Sea-spirit began to recite

the following Gathas—

"' There are many sorts of men and other creatures in the world,
Who will do all sorts of things to get wealth thereby;
But now I see you are a man wholly bereft of sense,
Beyond all I have ever seen amongst mortals!
This great ocean is eighty-four thousand yojanas in width,
And do you hope to dry it up and empty it with a ladle ?,
If you were to work from the day of your birth
Till death in emptying out your ladlefuls,
The water you emptied away would be but a drop
Compared with this wide and profound ocean,
You are ignorant, therefore, and void of reflection,
Like one who would take Mount Sumeru for an earring.'

"At this time I (the merchant prince) answered the Sea-Spirit
thus—
"'Divine Being! this is not well said on your part,
Desiring as you do to prevent me from emptying the sea,
You may now watch me with fixed mind, and see
How soon I will empty the ocean and make it dry;
But you, because the long delay you expect in waiting
Would weary you, therefore you grieve and fret.
But I swear that my resolution shall never flag,
I will empty this ocean, I will render it dry,
The precious gem which I have lost in its depths,1
On its account I desire to dry up these waters,
Then shall I recover my priceless gem,
And, having obtained it, I will return home again.'

"At this time, the Sea-spirit, having heard these words, was filled with anxiety, and reflected thus—' This man, so firm in his resolution, will really empty out the sea and make it dry," —and so, having reflected thus, forthwith he gave back to me (the merchant prince) my priceless jewel; and, in so doing, repeated the following Gathas— "' All men should encourage a resolute and firm determination, And vow that what they undertake they will never give up, I see now the power of this principle— Having recovered your lost gem, go to your home.'"

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