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Then this Naga Raja's wife called Kin-Kwong (Suvarna Prabhasa ?), taking with her countless dragon girls, surrounded Bodhisatwa, each holding in her hand some choice flower, or unguent, or coloured garment, or flag, and every kind of tinkling jewelled ornament, with which they kept up a perpetual chant of praise; from the midst of which some such words as these were heard: "Go forward! Lord of the World! firmly fixed in thy resolve, Without anxiety or fear, perfectly established; Rejoice and be very glad—thou who hast banished desire! free from all doubt or anger (raga and moha) or covetous

ness (tanha).
Thou art the Lord able to heal the world,
And therefore we adore thee and we worship thee."1

The dreams of Mara.

§ 2. Then Bodhisatwa having heard these stanzas, proceeded onwards towards the Bodhi Tree, and then he began to think that Mara Raja, the wicked one, Lord of the Kama Lokas, ought also to be a witness of his victory over the world and attainment of Supreme Wisdom. On this, emitting a bright ray of glory from between his eyebrows, which penetrated to the abode of Mara, this voice was heard where the ray penetrated throughout the vast chiliocosm:

"There is one born now amongst men
Who has practised the rules of piety for ages,
The Prince Royal, son of Suddhodana Raja,
Who has resigned the royal dignity and become a recluse;
He, desiring to open the gates of everlasting life,
Is now proceeding towards the B6dhi Tree.
If you are able to do so, and equal to the task,
Repair straightway and see him there beneath the tree,
For now he is about to cross over to the other side
And desires above al l things to save others with himself;
B6dhisatwa, himself enlightened,
Desires also to enlighten others," etc., etc.

1 The whole of this description agrees with plate lvhi (righthand pillar, upper group)—Tree and Serpent Worship.

At this time Mara Raja, the Wicked,1 Lord of the Rama lotas, hearing these stanzas sounding out of the middle of the supernatural light, in the midst of his sleep, was greatly moved, and in his night dreams beheld thirty-two kinds of portents, which were of an unlucky character. And now, what were these portents? 1. He saw all the heavens darkened with a deep gloom.

2. He saw his own palace greatly polluted with stones and filth.

3. He saw his own body trembling with fear, and his heart devoid of strength. 4. He saw himself galloping fast away on horseback towards the four quarters of heaven. 5. He saw his crown falls from his head, and tumble to the ground. 6. He saw himself with fevered breath and burning throat, but his body icy cold and numbed. 7. He saw all the trees and flowers in his palace garden withered and dead. 8. He saw all the lakes which were covered with lovely flowers, dried up and gone. 9. He saw all the favourite birds in his gardens fall to the ground, their feathers scattered here and there. 10. He saw all the musical instruments within his palace mutilated and broken to pieces. 11. He saw all his attendants, who had hitherto surrounded him to do him service, flee hither and thither, and leave him alone, lying on the earth. 12. He saw his lovely concubines tearing their hair and rolling on the ground. 13. He saw all his children prostrate at the feet of Bodhisatwa, beneath the Bodhi Tree. 14. He saw four of his favourite women, with both arms raised, weeping and lamenting, and saying, "Alas! alas ! woe is me! woe is me!" 15. He saw his royal garments covered with dirt and filth. 16. He saw his own body begrimed with dust and dirt. 17. He saw the glory of his body fade, and all its beauty disappear. 18. He saw the walls, windows, and towers of his palace all destroyed and falling down.

19. He saw all the Yakshas, Combat ants, and so on, drop on their hands and raise their heads and weep through grief.

20. He saw all the Devas of the Kama Loka proceed weeping towards the place where B6dhisatwa was, and when arrived there stand in front of him. 21. He saw these Devas within the sacred enclosure driving away, with clubs and swords, Mara Raja, who was fleeing with his followers in every direction.4 22. He saw the

1 That is, Pisuna.

2 This seems to be the subject of PI. lviii, Tree and Serpent Worship i left hand pillar.

various vessels of good augury broken and destroyed. 23. He saw the Rishi Narada uttering unpropitious words. 24. He saw a certain Divine Spirit, whose name was "fun-hi" (joyous), standing in front of the door and crying out "call me not joyous." 25. He saw the expanse of space filled with clouds of dust and smoke. 26. He saw the guardian spirit of Mara's palace, whose name was Kung-tih (merit), raise a doleful cry, and weep. 27. He saw that which before had been self-sufficient, no longer so. 28. He saw those who had been (his) friends now quarrelling and fighting. 29. He saw the palaces of Mara burning with fire, and finally wrapt in darkness. 30. He saw all the rooms in the palace moving and rocking to and fro. 31. He saw the trees and forests uprooted, and the earth covered with their branches. 32. He saw the world come to an end.

Now it came to pass that when Mara Raja, the Wicked, had seen these thirty-two unlucky dreams that he awoke out of his sleep, and as he awoke his whole body trembled with fear, and his thoughts were exceedingly troubled. Forthwith, he called to his side the entire assembly of his household, and all his ministers and guards, that he might tell them the visions he had seen. And thus he addressed them—" Be it known to you all who are here assembled, that yesternight, in my dreams, I beheld these visions, and am thereat greatly troubled and distressed, for they are not propitious, but, on the contrary, of evil omen, for it seems to me they indicate that soon I shall lose my dominion through the power of some great man, who is to be born within my domain." And so the Gathas say— "Last night there shone around a self-caused light,

from which a voice spake out these words—

'The child of the Sakyas has become a recluse,

His body adorned with 32 marks of pre-eminence;

And now he has fulfilled six years of penance,

And is gradually advancing to the tree of knowledge,

Self-enlightened, to enlighten others with the light of wisdom.

Now, then, if you have strength, go I strive with him!

His virtue the growth of infinite ages,

S now is about to attain the true and only lasting wisdom.

He it is who will destroy thy kingdom for ever!

If you cannot meet and overpower him;

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When once he has attained the eternal and everlasting body,
Then he will overturn your dominion and authority.'
Now, then, ye children and associates of Mara! I say,
If ye have any power or strength, go straight to him,
The Shaman who aims to gain Divine Power at the foot of yon-
der tree;
Go quickly there, and overwhelm him, that he succeed not.
If ye will attend to my words of loving counsel,
Take now your host of every kind.
The world has many holy men (Pratyeka Buddhas),
But this man aims at Nirvana itself (Divinity),
Despite of me he presumes by himself to be Dharmaraja,
And defies me to cut off the seed of the Tathagatas."

At this time the chief son of Amara Raja Pisuna, whose name was Shreshti, rose up and addressed his father in the following words:—

"Why, my father, are your cheeks so pale?
Your heart in trepidation, and your body without glory!
I see these proofs of some great cause of anxiety,
But as yet we have not heard any reason thereof.
Would that you would tell your children the reason
Why thus you look, in very truth."

Then Mara Raja answered his son Shreshti, and said—

"Listen, then, my son, and understand:
Last night I had such ever varying dreams,
That if I should narrate them in your midst.
Ye all would fall upon the ground through fear."

To whom Shreshti replied—

"Say not that we should fall upon the ground,
For then 'twere useless to engage ourselves to fight;
If your dreams were of this unlucky sort,
It were better not to seek to overcome that man."

To whom Mara Raja replied—
"Let him who fights resolve to conquer,
For if he doubts, 'twere better not to fight.
What can that solitary hermit do?
I myself will go and meet him underneath the tree."

To whom Shreshti rejoined—

"There may be strength and much brute force,
But Wisdom is the only assurance of victory.
The universe may be full of fire-flies,
But one sun eclipses all their brilliancy.
If a man puffed up with idle thoughts,
Make no inquiry as to what his adversary is,
Then all wise men, presaging what will happen,
Regard such person as one difficult to deal with."

And now B6dhisatwa, advancing toward the Bodhi tree, on his way observed a certain Amra tree, seeing which and thinking it was the Tree of Knowledge, he approached to it, intending to sit down. At this time the earth shook as though it would dissolve, in consequence of the glory of the person of B6dhisatwa. Then he reflected thus with himself—there are but two occasions in the world on which the earth shakes in this way, viz., when a man gives up every remnant of virtuous principle; and, secondly, when a man's virtuous principle is fully grown and his merit as great as it can be. Neither of these cases applies to me, and, therefore, this cannot be the Bodhi tree.

Then the Devas of the Rupa loka worlds, dwelling in the Suddhavasa Heavens, in order to denote the true Bodhi tree, began to hang upon it flags and banners, and also on the branches of the trees that led towards it. Then Bodhisatwa, recognising from these signs the true Bodhi tree, proceeded slowly forward from the Amra in the direction indicated. Now when B6dhisatwa had just arrived there, a certain Yaksha called Hiang-shan, who was guarding the precinct not far from the tree, seeing B&dhisatwa approaching, called hastily to another Yaksha, whose name was "redeye" (chih ngan), and said to him, "My dear friend, go as quickly as you can to Mara, the Lord of the Kama lokas, and tell him that just as in days of yore Krakusanda, and Konagamana, and Ktlsyapa approached this tree, and afterwards attained Supreme Wisdom, so now there is advancing towards it a man of invincible determination, whose appearance indicates the greatest religious merit, and whose person is marked by the thirty-two significant signs, encroaching on the dominion of Mara; and in truth this is none other than Siddhartha, the son of SuddhSdana Raja, who has undergone a

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