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Then this Nâga Râja's wife called Kin-Kwong (Suvarna Prabhâsa ?), taking with her countless dragon girls, surrounded Bôdhisatwa, each holding in her hand some choice flower, or unguent, or coloured garment, or flag, and every kind of tinkling jewelled ornament, with which they kept up a perpetual chant of praise; from the midst of which some such words as these were heard: "Go forward! Lord of the World! firmly fixed in thy resolve, Without anxiety or fear, perfectly established;

Rejoice and be very glad-thou who hast banished desire! Free from all doubt or anger (raga and moha) or covetousness (tanha).

Thou art the Lord able to heal the world,

And therefore we adore thee and we worship thee."1

The dreams of Mâra.

§ 2. THEN Bôdhisatwa having heard these stanzas, proceeded onwards towards the Bôdhi Tree, and then he began to think that Mâra Râja, the wicked one, Lord of the Kama Lokas, ought also to be a witness of his victory over the world and attainment of Supreme Wisdom. On this, emitting a bright ray of glory from between his eyebrows, which penetrated to the abode of Mâra, this voice was heard where the ray penetrated throughout the vast chiliocosm :

"There is one born now amongst men

Who has practised the rules of piety for ages,

The Prince Royal, son of Suddhôdana Râja,

Who has resigned the royal dignity and become a recluse ;

He, desiring to open the gates of everlasting life,

Is now proceeding towards the Bôdhi Tree.

If you are able to do so, and equal to the task,

Repair straightway and see him there beneath the tree,

For now he is about to cross over to the other side

And desires above all things to save others with himself;
Bodhisatwa, himself enlightened,

Desires also to enlighten others," etc., etc.

1 The whole of this description agrees with plate lvii (righthand pillar, upper group)-Tree and Serpent Worship.

At this time Mâra Râja, the Wicked,1 Lord of the Kama lokas, hearing these stanzas sounding out of the middle of the supernatural light, in the midst of his sleep, was greatly moved, and in his night dreams beheld thirty-two kinds of portents, which were of an unlucky character. And now, what were these portents? 1. He saw all the heavens darkened with a deep gloom. 2. He saw his own palace greatly polluted with stones and filth. 3. He saw his own body trembling with fear, and his heart devoid of strength. 4. He saw himself galloping fast away on horseback towards the four quarters of heaven. 5. He saw his crown fall from his head, and tumble to the ground. 6. He saw himself with fevered breath and burning throat, but his body icy cold and numbed. 7. He saw all the trees and flowers in his palace garden withered and dead. 8. He saw all the lakes which were covered with lovely flowers, dried up and gone. 9. He saw all the favourite birds in his gardens fall to the ground, their feathers scattered here and there. 10. He saw all the musical instruments within his palace mutilated and broken to pieces. 11. He saw all his attendants, who had hitherto surrounded him to do him service, flee hither and thither, and leave him alone, lying on the earth. 12. He saw his lovely concubines tearing their hair and rolling on the ground. 13. He saw all his children prostrate at the feet of Bodhisatwa, beneath the Bôdhi Tree. 14. He saw four of his favourite women, with both arms raised, weeping and lamenting, and saying, "Alas! alas! woe is me! woe is me!" 15. He saw his royal garments covered with dirt and filth. 16. He saw his own body begrimed with dust and dirt. 17. He saw the glory of his body fade, and all its beauty disappear. 18. He saw the walls, windows, and towers of his palace all destroyed and falling down. 19. He saw all the Yakshas, Kumbhandas, Nâgas, and so on, drop on their hands and raise their heads and weep through grief. 20. He saw all the Devas of the Kama Loka proceed weeping towards the place where Bôdhisatwa was, and when arrived there stand in front of him. 21. He saw these Devas within the sacred enclosure driving away, with clubs and swords, Mâra Râja, who was fleeing with his followers in every direction.2 22. He saw the

1 That is, Pisuna.

2 This seems to be the subject of Pl. lviii, Tree and Serpent Worship; left hand pillar.

various vessels of good augury broken and destroyed. 23. He saw the Rishi Narada uttering unpropitious words. 24. He saw a certain Divine Spirit, whose name was "fun-hi” (joyous), standing in front of the door and crying out "call me not joyous." 25. He saw the expanse of space filled with clouds of dust and smoke. 26. He saw the guardian spirit of Mâra's palace, whose name was Kung-tih (merit), raise a doleful cry, and weep. 27. He saw that which before had been self-sufficient, no longer so. 28. He saw those who had been (his) friends now quarrelling and fighting. 29. He saw the palaces of Mâra burning with fire, and finally wrapt in darkness. 30. He saw all the rooms in the palace moving and rocking to and fro. 31. He saw the trees and forests uprooted, and the earth covered with their branches. 32. He saw the world come to an end.

Now it came to pass that when Mâra Râja, the Wicked, had seen these thirty-two unlucky dreams that he awoke out of his sleep, and as he awoke his whole body trembled with fear, and his thoughts were exceedingly troubled. Forthwith, he called to his side the entire assembly of his household, and all his ministers and guards, that he might tell them the visions he had seen. And thus he addressed them—" Be it known to you all who are here assembled, that yesternight, in my dreams, I beheld these visions, and am thereat greatly troubled and distressed, for they are not propitious, but, on the contrary, of evil omen, for it seems to me they indicate that soon I shall lose my dominion through the power of some great man, who is to be born within my domain." And so the Gâthas say

"Last night there shone around a self-caused light,

From which a voice spake out these words—

'The child of the Sâkyas has become a recluse,

His body adorned with 32 marks of pre-eminence;

And now he has fulfilled six years of penance,

And is gradually advancing to the tree of knowledge,

Self-enlightened, to enlighten others with the light of wisdom. Now, then, if you have strength, go! strive with him!

His virtue the growth of infinite ages,

He now is about to attain the true and only lasting wisdom.

He it is who will destroy thy kingdom for ever!

If you cannot meet and overpower him ;

When once he has attained the eternal and everlasting body, Then he will overturn your dominion and authority.'

Now, then, ye children and associates of Mâra! I say,

If ye have any power or strength, go straight to him,

The Shaman who aims to gain Divine Power at the foot of yon

der tree;

Go quickly there, and overwhelm him, that he succeed not.

If ye will attend to my words of loving counsel,

Take now your host of every kind.

The world has many holy men (Pratyeka Buddhas),

But this man aims at Nirvâna itself (Divinity),

Despite of me he presumes by himself to be Dharmarâja,
And defies me to cut off the seed of the Tathagatas."

At this time the chief son of Mâra Râja Pisuna, whose name was Shreshti, rose up and addressed his father in the following words:

“Why, my father, are your cheeks so pale ?

Your heart in trepidation, and your body without glory!

I see these proofs of some great cause of anxiety,

But as yet we have not heard any reason thereof.
Would that you would tell your children the reason
Why thus you look, in very truth."

Then Mâra Râja answered his son Shreshti, and said—
"Listen, then, my son, and understand:

Last night I had such ever varying dreams,

That if I should narrate them in your midst,

Ye all would fall upon the ground through fear."

To whom Shreshti replied

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Say not that we should fall upon the ground,

For then 'twere useless to engage ourselves to fight;

If your dreams were of this unlucky sort,

It were better not to seek to overcome that man."

To whom Mâra Râja replied

"Let him who fights resolve to conquer,

For if he doubts, 'twere better not to fight.

What can that solitary hermit do?

I myself will go and meet him underneath the tree."

To whom Shreshti rejoined

"There may
be strength and much brute force,
But Wisdom is the only assurance of victory.
The universe may be full of fire-flies,

But one sun eclipses all their brilliancy.

If a man puffed up with idle thoughts,
Make no inquiry as to what his adversary is,
Then all wise men, presaging what will happen,
Regard such person as one difficult to deal with."

And now Bodhisatwa, advancing toward the Bodhi tree, on his way observed a certain Amra tree, seeing which and thinking it was the Tree of Knowledge, he approached to it, intending to sit down. At this time the earth shook as though it would dissolve, in consequence of the glory of the person of Bôdhisatwa. Then he reflected thus with himself-there are but two occasions in the world on which the earth shakes in this way, viz., when a man gives up every remnant of virtuous principle; and, secondly, when a man's virtuous principle is fully grown and his merit as great as it can be. Neither of these cases applies to me, and, therefore, this cannot be the Bôdhi tree.

Then the Devas of the Rupa loka worlds, dwelling in the Suddhavasa Heavens, in order to denote the true Bôdhi tree, began to hang upon it flags and banners, and also on the branches of the trees that led towards it. Then Bôdhisatwa, recognising from these signs the true Bôdhi tree, proceeded slowly forward from the Amra in the direction indicated. Now when Bôdhisatwa had just arrived there, a certain Yaksha called Hiang-shan, who was guarding the precinct not far from the tree, seeing Bôdhisatwa approaching, called hastily to another Yaksha, whose name was "red eye" (chih ngan), and said to him, "My dear friend, go as quickly as you can to Mâra, the Lord of the Kama lokas, and tell him that just as in days of yore Krakusanda, and Konagamana, and Kâsyapa approached this tree, and afterwards attained Supreme Wisdom, so now there is advancing towards it a man of invincible determination, whose appearance indicates the greatest religious merit, and whose person is marked by the thirty-two significant signs, encroaching on the dominion of Mâra; and in truth this is none other than Siddârtha, the son of Suddhôdana Râja, who has undergone a

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