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sician to give me health, I throw no further difficulties in the way."

On this, one of the ascetics greatly commends Bodhisatwa, on the ground that all religious disputes and controversies, where the object is victory only, certainly lead to hatred and greater evils than any good they can effect.

"But although," Bodhisatwa says, "I desire not to wrangle, nevertheless, I seek a condition of escape that admits of no return to life and its troubles •" on which Alara speaks of his system as teaching this. "But how V enquires Bodhisatwa, "at one moment jrou speak of your discipline leading to a definite condition of Being (bhuva), and the next you say it admits of no return—this is strange."

"And so it is," said Alara, "for this condition of which I speak is that of the Great Brahma, whose substantial existence is one of perfect quietude, without beginning, without end; without bounds or limits, no first or last, his operations inexhaustible, his form without parts or marks—immutable, incorruptible."

"But if this be so," said Bodhisatwa, " what becomes of him, and who is He when at the end of the Kalpa, this heaven and earth, even up to the abode of Sakra, is burnt up and entirely destroyed—where then is your Creator?"

Alara remained silent, with a quiet smile on his lips, whilst one of his disciples greatly commended the wisdom of Bodhisatwa, but reminded him that in old time the great Eishis all attained perfect wisdom in the way described by Alara—for instance (here follows a list of Eishis), all of whom entered into the brightness of the sun, and attained the straight path.

"What then is this 'entering into the brightness of the sun V" enquired Bodhisatwa, "and if I worship these, how can I admit the idea of an Isvara or Supreme God, who alone deserves worship?" Then the conviction seized Bodhisatwa, that this system of Alara could not be a final and complete exhibition of deliverance, and his heart became sad.

Alara perceiving this, rose from his seat and addressed Bodhisatwa," What then is the system of deliverance, beyond the one I have illustrated, after which you look?"

To which Bodhisatwa replied, "I seek a system in which questions about the elements shall have no place—in which there shall be no discussion about the senses or their objects—no talk of death or birth, disease or old age—no questioning about existence (bhuva) or non-existence, about eternity or non-eternity, in which words shall be useless, and the idea of the boundless and illimitable (realized), but not talked about."

Then he added this Gatha:

"In the beginning there was neither birth or death, or age or disease, Neither earth or water, fire, wind, or space, Then there was no need of a teacher for the three worlds, But a condition of perfect freedom, lasting, pure, and self-contained."


On this Alara invited Bodhisatwa to divide with him the duties of Master, and instruct his followers in the doctrines he advocated. Bodhisatwa, although rejoiced to hear such an invitation, was still dissatisfied with a system which could reach no further than this, and so arose and left the company of Alara and his followers, on which they escorted him a little distance, and wished him lasting happiness.

Discussion with Udra Bamaputra.1

§ 2. At this time there was a distinguished teacher living as a hermit not far from Rajagriha, whose name was Udra Rama. Bodhisatwa, having heard of his fame, determined to seek his company, and inquire into his system of religion.

Proceeding, therefore, in a deliberate manner from the presence of Alara, he advanced towards the river Ganges, having crossed which he came to the place where Udra Eama was, and addressed him as follows—" Virtuous sir! I have sought your company, that I may receive instruction from you in the discipline of the Brahman!" To whom he replied —" Most virtuous Gotama! as I judge, you are able to receive my instruction, and to practise this discipline of the Brahman; but if you really desire this, you must first of all lay a right foundation to secure the desired result."

To whom Bodhisatwa answered, "Would that you would explain what I must do, and what is your system of deliverance!"

On this Udra explains that his system hinges on the absence of all questions of relationship (relative truth)—that there must be neither thought (sanjnya-skandha), or the absence of it; and in this state of absolute indifference lies the highest deliverance.

B6dhisatwa, in a brief time, realised in himself this mode of

1 In the original, Yeou-tolo (Udra) Lo-Ma-tsen (Ramaputra).

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deliverance, but was dissatisfied with it, on the ground that it was not final, and admitted the possibility of return; and, notwithstanding Udra's reference to the final deliverance of Rama, his Father, Bodhisatwa left his company and went his way, as the Gatha says—

"Bodhisatwa, considering, perceived that this system
Was one which, from old time, Rama had practised,
But was no means of final and complete deliverance;
Therefore, he turned away and left him (Udra) alone."

The sojourn in Mount Pandava.

§ 2. Then Bodhisatwa, leaving the place where Udra Ramaputra dwelt, went forward with thoughtful mien, and came to the mountain called Pandava [this signifies yellow-white colour]. Having arrived there, he sought for a shady spot whereon to rest, and then sat down, with his legs crossed, beneath a tree. How beautiful his body, and his mind composed to a state of perfect rest! His condition was as that of the man above whose head there had been a burning fire, when that fire is removed! So Bodhisatwa was at peace.

Then he began to reflect: "How long before I shall entirely rid myself of this weight of accumulated sorrows-- when shall I destroy this secret power of delusion, and attain complete emancipation?—and when shall I be able to rescue the world from the bonds of perpetual birth and death?" Thinking thus, the glory of his person shone forth with double power.

At this time there were various people scattered about on the mountain side, some gathering shrubs and roots, others collecting the dry dung of the ox, others engaged in hunting, others tending their herds, and others travelling along the way. All these afar off beheld B6dhisatwa sitting under the shade of the tree, his body glorious as a bright golden image. At the sight they were filled with a strange feeling of reverence, and one spake to another thus —" Respectable sir! believe me, this is no every-day person; Whence has he come, and how did he arrive at this Mount? Surely


he is the guardian spirit of this Panda va mountain." Others said, he is the Rishi of the place; others said, he is the guardian god of Mount Vibharo; others said, he is the guardian spirit of Gridhrakuta;m others said, this is the great earth spirit, come up from beneath; others said, he is the spirit of the upper regions of space come down to earth. So they were all in doubt who this could be that shone out so gloriously, as the brightness of the sun and moon in the midst of the mountain, and in whose presence the flowers of the Palasa trees opened and displayed their sweets. At least, said they, this is no mortal man, for never yet did man possess such beauty, and shed abroad such glory, as this man.

[Kiouen XXII contains 6420 words and cost 3.21 taels.]


Bodhisatwa visits Bajagriha.

§ 1. Now Bodhisatwa, having passed the night in this place, at the early dawn put on his outer robe, and proceeded from Mount Pandava towards Rajagriha to beg his food, desiring to rid himself of every remnant of earthly pollution, and to attain a condition of perfect purity and rest (Anupadhisesa Nirvana).

Then he remembered that he had no alms-bowl (Patra) in which to receive his food; wherefore looking around him in every direction for some substitute, he suddenly saw a place where there was a pond covered with great flowers; seeing which he forthwith addressed himself to a certain man who was passing by, and said, "Respectable Sir ! may I ask you the favour of picking me one of those leaves 2 of the lotus flower growing in yonder pond?" Having heard the request, the man immediately entered the pond and procured the leaf, and presented it respectfully to Bodhisatwa, having received which he went forward to the city of Rajagriha to beg his food.

Then the people within and without the city, seeing the incom

1 Ki-che-kiu, evidently an abbreviation from the Pali, Ghedjakato.

» Patra. This seems to intimate the origin of the word pdtra, an alms-bowl.

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