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sandal wood, and so received the prediction that after ninety-five Kalpas, etc. Ananda! I remember in years gone by there was a Buddha born called Pushya Tathagata, etc., and whilst this Buddha was residing in a Pansal,1 I was so overjoyed by beholding him that for seven days and seven nights with raised palms interlaced together, and standing on one foot, I repeated this Gatha of praise, 'Above heaven, below heaven, there is no one like Buddha. In every region of the universe there is none to be compared with him, I have seen an end of all perfection in the world, but no such being as Buddha have I seen!' Ananda! after thus applauding that Buddha, and having vowed as before, then that Buddha predicted that after ninety-four Kalpas I should attain perfection and be called Sakya Muni. Ananda! after this prediction I relaxed no effort, but after various births as a Chakravarti Raja, and as Brahma, etc., having attained incomparable skill in dialectical discussions, and the interpretation of the Sacred Books I obtained perfection.
"Ananda! I remember in ages gone by there was a Buddha born, called Chun-li (true reason.) [The Kasyapiyas call him Kin-yih-tsai-li (Satyadarsi).] I offered all sorts of flowers to him, and obtained a positive prediction to the same effect (after ninety-three Kalpas).
"Ananda! I remember in years gone by there was a Buddha born called Vipasyi, to whom I offered a handful of pulse, and obtained a positive prediction (ninety-one Kalpas), after which I was born as a Chakravarti called Agrajanman (teng-singj, possessed of the four quarters of the world, and afterwards obtained the half seat of Sakra and occupied it, and then reached perfection. Ananda! I remember in ages gone by that there was a Buddha born called Sikhi, to him I offered a priceless robe, as well as to his followers, praying as before, from whom I received a positive prediction that after thirty-one Kalpas I should attain perfection, after which passing through every kind of birth I was possessed of the most beautiful garments of Kasi wool, etc., and then reached perfection.
"Ananda! I remember a Buddha called Viswabhu, to whom I made offerings of the richest food, and obtained a positive assu
1 That is a "leafy hut" or a cell covered with leaves.
ranee (thirty Kalpas). Ananda! I remember a Buddha called Kakusanda, and another called Kanakamuni, and another called Kasyapa. So I remember through endless ages gone by, by the side of Maitreya Bodhisatwa making these religious offerings to countless Buddhas, with a view to obtain for myself the perfection I now enjoy.
"And now to recount; I remember one hundred asankheyas of Kalpas ago, a Buddha called1 Dipankara, etc., a hundred tens of myriads of Kalpas ago, a Buddha called Sarvabhibhu ;2 five hundred Kalpas ago a Buddha called Atyushagami3 (doubtful); one hundred Kalpas ago a Buddha called Sakyamuni ;4 ninety-four Kalpas ago a Buddha called Pushya ;5 ninety-three Kalpas ago a Buddha called Satyadarsi ;6 ninety-one Kalpas ago a Buddha called Vipasyi;7 thirty-one Kalpas ago a Buddha called Sikhi,8 and in the middle of the same Kalpa a Buddha called Devasruta,9 and in the present Bhadra Kalpa10 Kakutasanda,11 Kanakamuni,12 Kasyapa, and myself.13 Ananda! Dipafikara's life numbered eighty-four thousand myriad lakhs of years. [This is according to the Mahisasakas. The KAsyapfyas say that Dipaukara lived one Kalpa.] Sarvabhibhu lived eighty thousand lakhs of years. [The Mahisasakas say so, but the Kasyapiyas say one Kalpa.] Padmottara Buddha lived eighty thousand years. Atyushagami seventy thousand years; Sakyamuni eighty thousand years; Tishya Buddha sixty thousand years; Pushya Buddha fifty thousand years; Satyadarsi Buddha forty thousand years; Vipasyi Buddha eighty thousand years; Devasruta Buddha sixty thousand years; Kakusanda forty thousand years; Kanakamuni thirty thousand years; Kasyapa twenty thousand years; myself eighty years. And so the Gatha says:
"' There are Buddhas who by their spiritual power
1 Brahman. 2 Kshatriya. 3 Brahman.
4 Kshatriya. 5 Brahman. 6 Kshatriya.
7 Brahman. 8 Kshatriya. 9 Kshatriya.
10 Brahman. u Kshatriya. 12 Brahman. 13 Kshatriya.
"Ananda! Dipankara had 250 myriad lakhs of disciples; after his death, the true law endured 70,000 years; Sarvabhibhu had 14,000 disciples; the true law endured but for a short time; Padmottara had 70,000 disciples; the true law endured 100,000 years; Atyushagami had 60,000 disciples; the true law lasted 71,000 years; Sakyamuni had 1250 disciples; the true law 500 years; the law of images 500 years; Tishya 60,000 lakhs of disciples; the true law 20,000 years; Pushya, countless lakhs of disciples. Satyadarsi had 32,000 lakhs of nahutas of disciples; but the true law lasted but for a short time after his death. Vipasyi held three great assemblies. The true law lasted 20,000 years. Devasruta had two great assemblies; the law lasted 50,000 years. Kakusanda had 40,000 disciples; the true law lasted 500 years. Kanakamuni had 300 myriad disciples, and the true law lasted 29 days. Kasyapa had 20,000 disciples, and endured 7 days. I, Ananda! have 1250 disciples; my true law will last 500 years, and the law of images 50u years. And now I will briefly recite a Udana verse—
"' I have spoken of the gifts, and the number of years,
Containing a list of kings (Maharajawanso) belonging to the present kalpa (Bhadra kalpa).
On one occasion Buddha was residing at Rajagriha, in the Kalanda venu vana, with his great disciples, five hundred in all. At this time the world-honoured one, in conformity with the laws of all the Buddhas, etc., addressed the Bhikshus thus: "Listen and weigh well my words all ye Bhikshus."
Then they replied, "gladly and with a believing heart do we attend."
Then Buddha continued, " When the earth was first firmly established, at that time there was an eminent and wealthy Chakravarti called Sammata (chung-tsah-chih). Havin g firmly established (order), then the whole body of sentient creatures addressed him thus: "Our Lord and Master should now exercise his authority in punishing the wicked and rewarding the good. He ought to divide the lands and distribute to each of us a part for cultivation, and we will pay back to our Lord a portion of the fruits." And he acted accordingly. [Hence he was called " Tai-chung-ping-tang," i. e., equal agreement of all creatures. He was also called King, and because he looked after the division and protection of the land, he was called Eshatriya Raja.]
Thus things were settled in the first period, and men governed and ruled according to law. Afterwards Sammata1 Raja had a son called Chun-shin, a Chakravarti, possessed of the seven insignia; in his days the earth was perfectly level, without precipices or valleys, and the fruits of the earth flourished abundantly; there was no crime and no punishment, etc. Among his thousand sons the chief was "i-fi" Panorama ?) also called "tsz-yung." He also was a Chakravarti; his chief's son was called "chi-che" (the wise one), so called because he received instruction (lit. received rules); he also was a Chakravarti. His son was Agrajanman (head-born), his San Maha-Sagara, and so on down to Maha-Pratapa.
[This fourth Kiouen contains 6490 words, and cost 3.245 taels.]
Bhikshus! that Maha-Pratapa had a son called Man6bhirama, [an I so on for eleven generations down to Sudarsana, Maha Sudarsana, Meru, Maha Meru]. Bhikshus! Maha Meru's descendants were a hundred and one little Chakravartins, who lived at Pattana Poura (Patna ?). The last of that race was Sinhayana, his descendants were sixty-one, all little Chakravartins, who lived at
1 Ta chung-so-lai-che-wang.
Benares; the last of these was Narfyana, his sons and grandsons were fifty-six little Chakravartins, who reigned at Ay6dhya; the last of this race was Yen-in-Sang (Pratapajati l his descendants were one thousand little Chakravartins, who lived at Kapilaya. The last of these was Brahmadatta, and his descendants fifty-six, who lived at Hastinapoura, the last of these was Hastipa; his descendants, twenty-five who lived at Takshasila; the last of these was Gupta; his descendants, one thousand twohundred, lived at Syana l?); the last " able to destroy" had ninety descendants, who all lived at Kanyakubja; the last of these had two thousand five hundred descendants, who lived at Champa; the last of his descendants was called Nagadeva; his descendants, twenty-five in number, lived at Rajagriha; the last of these had twenty-five descendants, who lived at Kusinagara. [I omit other names.) Bhikshus! you must know that these little Chakravarti monarchs were all possessed of such merit, that they received the reward of it in their various births in the world, and the excellency of their dominion over men and the great earth.
Bhikshus! I will now proceed to detail the names of the different kings who descended from U-Wang (Fish-King),1 who reigned at Mithila; he had a son called Chun-Sang (true born), the merit of his ancestors being well exhausted, he was the last of this royal line, and men began to talk about his want of merit and degradation. As the poorest, most pitiable, they also called him O-keuh (Okaka?), and this became his common name; his last descendant was called Ta-man-tso (Mahakusa?), who having no son, thought thus with himself, "all my predecessors, when they saw the first white hair appear, were in the habit of resigning their kingdom, and after a charitable bequest to the priesthood, they shaved their heads, and became ascetics; and now I have no son, whom then shall I select to succeed me? who is there of my race of sufficient dignity and renown, seeing that I am cut off from the line of kings? Again he thought, "If I do not become an ascetic then I shall lose all connection with the line of holy men who have preceded me." Having reflected thus, Ta-man-tso immediately gave over the kingdom to his great ministers, and surrounded by a vast multitude of followers he left the city and shaved his head, and put on the
1 Makhadeva (Turnour).