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which were these:—first, he dreamt he saw the great earth stretched out for him to use as a bed, his head reposed on Mount Sumeru as a pillow, the great sea on the East supported his left arm, his right arm rested on the great Western Sea, and both his feet stretched out to the great Southern Sea. Secondly, he dreamt that he saw a certain plant called Kin-leh', growing up out of his navel, and the top of it reaching even to the Akanishta Heaven. Thirdly, he dreamt that he saw four birds, flying from each Quarter, come towards him, they were of every colour, but as they came and fell at his feet, they all became white. Fourthly, he saw in his dreams four head of white cattle, black from their feet up to their knees, come and lick his feet. Fifthly, he saw a lofty and wide mount of impure substance, on which he reposed and went round it on foot without pollution.

The Flight from the Palace.

§ 2. At this time, whilst the Prince dwelt within the palace and slept, the chief officer of the guard, who protected the precincts, told the persons composing the guard that during the watches the pass-words should be these, "Komperah," "Mudra," "Angana." And he, moreover, warned them to be especially watchful throughout this particular night, to see that the prince did not escape, informing them of the anxiety of Suddh6dana, and the predictions of the soothsayers respecting his either being a Chakravarti or a recluse.

Then the first watch being passed, at midnight the guard exclaimed in a loud voice, "Prosperity to his Sacred Majesty—long life and happiness!" And so the first half of the middle watch went by, and it was just beginning the second half.

At this time all the Devas of the Suddhavasa Heavens came down to Kapilavastu. The men of the city were wrapped in sleep, and all within the palace was still and quiet. One of the Devas,

1 The Sinhalese account says it was an arrow that proceeded from the navel. I do not know what plant Kin-leh can be. Compare this with the story about Vishnu.

called Dharmicharya Devaputra, then approached the palace, and by his spiritual power entered it, and caused all the women who were asleep in the chamber around Siddhartha to contort their bodies into every kind of unseemly position, some half clothed, others partly in bed and partly out, lying in all directions, some with their eyes half-closed, others dribbling from their mouths, grinding with their teeth, snorting through their throats, etc.

Then the prince, suddenly waking up and seeing the braziers and lamps all trimmed and defiled with oil, and in the lurid light observing the women lying about in the unseemly attitudes just described, and the instruments of musk scattered^here and there in utter disorder, seeing all this, he reflected thus—" It is only the fool who is deceived by the outward show of beauty; for where is the beauty when the decorations of the person are taken away, the jewels removed, the gaudy dress laid aside, the flowers and chaplets withered and dead? The wise man, seeing the vanity of all such fictitious charms, regards them as a dream, a mirage, a phantasy."

And then he repeated this Gatha—

"How impure the world! how false and deceiving! And nothing more so than woman's appearance; Because of clothes, and the decorations of jewels, the fool is filled with mad desire. But if a man bring himself to consider 'All these charms are but a phantasy, unreal as a dream,' And so put away ignorance, and do not permit himself to be

deceived, That man shall obtain deliverance and a body free from contamination."

And then the prince proceeded further to reflect in this way— "Alas! what great misery is this! What an impure place is this! like a vessel filled with filth. Oh! what madness is it to desire such pleasures as these! This place is hateful—this place is deadly as poison," etc., etc.

And again he reflected, as he still gazed' on the scene in the chamber, "This sight should give me joy! as far as it steels my heart to resolve to aim at the highest religious happiness, and to vow to deliver all men who are left as it were without a Saviour, and to cause them to find a refuge and a place of safety in their present distress! I see in the spectacle before me a sign that the time of my own rescue is at hand I"

At this time, T'so-Ping Devaputra, seeing that the prince was awake, approached him and said, "Prince! the vows you have made from time to time, to be born in the Tusita heaven, to descend to earth, to be incarnated in the world, to abide in the palace and enjoy the pleasures of life; all these vows have been accomplished. And now all the Devas and men are looking to your leaving your palace and becoming a recluse !"

Then the prince, having heard the words of T'so-Ping Cleoputra, immediately put on his richly-adorned and invaluable slippers for the purpose of rising to look round the place once more. Then beholding the precious couch on which he had been accustomed to lie, he struck it with his hand as he uttered these words, "Never again will I indulge in the pleasures of sense—never again —this is the last time; from henceforth I entertain such thoughts no more!" Then taking in his right hand the richly-adorned net-like curtain which divided the chamber from the outer hall, he raised it and proceeded slowly through the outer apartments, and then, standing at the eastern door with closed hands, he paused and invoked the Universal Spirit,1 after which, raising his head, he looked up into heaven and beheld the countless stars of the night.

Then the four guardian Deities of the world and Divine Sakra, perceiving that the time was come for the prince to leave his home, began to assemble from the different quarters with their followers, designing to come to the spot where the prince was. Then Dhritarashtra, with an innumerable retinue of Gaudharvas discoursing sweet music, proceeded from the Eastern quarter, and having encircled the city of Kapilavastu three times, he descended to earth, and standing with clasped hands he bent his head towards the spot where the prince was standing. Then Tirudhaka Devaraja, with an innumerable retinue of Kumbhandas, holding in their hands vases full of perfumes, proceeding from the Southern quarter of space, came to the city and did likewise. And so also the Western

1 "All the Buddhas"—a, phrase introduced by later Buddhism -to signify "the Universal Spirit."

and Northern Kings [the first accompanied by Yakshas holding burning torches, &c.; the second accompanied by Nagas holding every kind of gem and jewelled ornament, etc.] came and did likewise. Then also Sakra Devanam, with innumerable Devas, holding every sort of heavenly flower, precious chaplet, costly perfume, etc., came from the Trayastrifishas Heavens and did likewise.

Then the prince, looking up into the heavens at the stars of night, beheld these countless beings assembling round the city, and just as the star Kwei was in conjunction with the moon, he heard the Devas chanting this song—" Holy Prince! the time has come! the star is now conjoined, the time has come to seek the Highest Law of Life; delay no longer amongst men, abandon all and become a recluse I"

Then the prince, still gazing upwards into heaven, thought thus with himself—" Now, in the silence of the night, the star Kwei in conjunction, all the Devas are come down to earth to confirm my resolution, ' I Will GoThe Time Has Come l' " Thus resolved, he called his coachman Tchandaka, born on the same day with himself, and addressed him thus—" Tchandaka! bring hither, without noise, my horse Kantaka, born on the same day as myself." Then Tchandaka, having heard these directions, and seeing the prince thus looking up into the Heavens during the depth of the night, began to doubt in his mind, his body trembled, and the hairs on his body stood erect, and he spake thus—" What fear, or what foe alarms my master that thus in the night time he orders me to bring his horse?"' "Tchandaka!" the prince replied, "you shall soon know all! but now bring me my horse Kantaka!"

[Kiouen XVI contains 6,368 words and cost 3.184 taels.]


On Leaving the palace to become a recluse.

§ 1. At this time Tchandaka, having heard the prince speak as he did, made up his mind that he had now resolved to become an ascetic; desiring, therefore, to shake the determination of the prince, he addressed him in a loud voice with a view to attract the attention of the guards of the palace—" Holy Prince! surely there is a right time for doing every thing! Is this then a time for having your horse harnessed and equipped. If your Highness really desires to go forth to visit the gardens, this is not the right time. What foe or rebel or traitor do you fear! The world is at peace! There is no public commotion, or distress! The whole earth is under the rule (umbrella) of one Holy Prince! Why then do you require your horse Kantaka to be brought? Prince! within your palace at the present time are numberless women! They lie around you on every side, coveting nothing so much as your attention. As the Lord of Heaven, Sakradevanam, rejoices in his garden, surrounded by his lovely Apsarasas, so are you, O Prince! in this palace, seated on your jewelled throne. Why then call for your horse? Let your heart be content in the midst of these your fair companions; listen to their charming songs, and partake of their pleasures, and rest at ease I" Then Tchandaka proceeded to pluck the headdresses (or hair), and with his foot to move the limbs of the women, in order to rouse and wake them, but all in vain! for by the power of the Devas they were still bound by sleep, and were affected by none of the efforts made to arouse them.

Then the prince, fearing lest the people should be aroused, addressed Tchandaka in a soft voice, thus—

"Tchandaka! born on the same day with myself, be assured

That all within this palace is in my sight as a grave!

As a pit filled with noisome insects and worms!

As an abode in which Rakshas dwell together!

• # • • #

Tchandaka! I realise the misery of these delights,

And my desire to remain here is gone!

Tchandaka! bring me my horse Kantaka!

My heart is fixed, I am resolved to become a recluse." Tchandaka, on hearing this, again replied, "But, O Prince! all the world says that hereafter you will certainly become a Chakravarti Raja, how can this be, if you now are determined to give up your—" But here the Prince, interrupting him said, "Psha! what folly, Tchandaka! for if formerly when I was a Deva in the Tusita Heaven's, I vowed to give up all that glory, in order to be born in the world and become a recluse, in consequence of my sense

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