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of mother, brother or sister or other relative; and therefore it is called 'a dead body,"" as the Gatha says— "Without thought or mind, or any sense,

Inert as a log or a stone, the dead body lies,

All its friends surrounding it and calling lamentably on his name,

About to be separated for aye from the object of their love," Then the prince again inquired, "Must I, dear coachman, also die?" To whom he said, "Most holy prince! your sacred body must also come to this and die; for neither Devas or men can avoid this inevitable fate." Even as the Gatha says— "This is the final destiny of all flesh— Gods and men, rich and poor alike, must die, Whether their present condition be good or bad, All creatures at the appointed time meet the like fate."

Then the prince replied, "If this be really so, and this body of mine must die and become like this, then what have I to do with pleasure, or why should I go to the garden to find enjoyment? Turn again, O coachman! turn again your chariot! and take me back to my palace that I may meditate on what you have said." Then the prince entered his palace again, and sat silently down and pondered on death and the impermanency of all things.

Now just as the prince was entering his palace gate, it so happened that outside there was standing a certain mad astrologer who, looking with a sort of wild expression on the prince, first at his face and then down over his body, cried out—" All ye folks! listen to what I have to say and attend! Within seven days from the present time this prince shall have possession of the seven gems which attend the person of a Chakravarti."

Then Suddhodana Raja asked the coachman [as before]; on hearing the reply he was deeply grieved, and continued to urge on the prince every mode of gratifying his sensual desires. And so matters still continued.

Beholding the Shaman.

§ 4. And So it came to pass that six days more elapsed during which the prince remained in his palace. Then again the Devaputra stirred him up to desire once more to go abroad to enjoy the pleasure of beholding the gardens beyond the city. On this occasion, as before, the prince directed the coachman what to do, who in his turn acquainted Suddhodana Raja with the circumstances, who gave orders as before.

Then the prince, having set out on his excursion, the Devaputra by his spiritual power caused to appear, not far in front of the chariot, a man with a shaven crown and wearing a SafigMti robe, with his right shoulder bare, in his right hand a religious staff, in his left hand holding a mendicant's alms bowl, and so going with measured pace along the road. The prince having observed this figure before him, asked the coachman—" Dear coachman! who is this man in front of me, proceeding with such slow and dignified steps, looking neither to the right or the left, with fixed attention, his head shaven, his garments of a reddish earthen colour, unlike the white-clad mendicants, his alms dish too of a purplish shining hue, like the stone 'toi'?"

Then the Devaputra T'so-Ping excited the coachman to answer thus—" Holy youth and illustrious prince! this person is called a mendicant (parivrajika)."

Then the prince asked again, "And what is the calling and conduct of a "mendicant?"

The coachman answered, "Great prince! this man constantly practises virtue, and avoids wrong; he gives himself to charity, and restrains his appetites and his bodily desires; he is in agreement with all men, and hurts nobody, neither killing nor poisoning any one; but, as far as he can, he does good to all, and is full of sympathy for all. Prince! for this reason he is called a mendicant." "If this be so," said the prince, " and he is of such a disposition, drive up to him, O coachman! and let me speak to him." This done, the prince addressed the mendicant and said, "Honoured Sir! tell me, I pray you, what man you are!" At this time the Devaputra T'so-Ping by his spiritual power caused him to answer thus—" Great prince! I am called a mendicant!" "And what is that?" inquired the prince. "It is one," the mendicant rejoined, "who has left the world and its ways, who has forsaken friends and home in order to find deliverance for himself, and desires nothing so much as by some expedient or other to give life to all creatures and to do harm to none; for this reason, O prince! I am called a mendicant (parivrajika, homeless one)."

Then the prince, resuming the conversation said, "Venerable one! and what is the character of the preparation necessary for arriving at this condition?" (To which the mendicant replied), "Illustrious youth! if you are able to behold (or regard) all objects of sense (sansara) [or the SamsMras, vide Introd., p. 505, n.] as impermanent, to think no evil and do none; but, on the contrary, to benefit all creatures (by your life and teaching), then this will lead to the condition of a mendicant; as the Gatha says— "' To regard all earthly things as perishable; To desire above all things the condition of Nirvana, Done with hatred or love, the heart equally affected, Freed from all earthly objects of desire; Frequenting the solitary pits or forests or beneath a tree, Or dwelling on the cold earth in the place of tombs, Thoroughly emancipated from all personal consideration, This is the way to regard the character of a mendicant.'" Then the prince, having descended from his chariot, proceeded to the spot where the mendicant stood, and bowing his head to the ground worshipped him, and having performed three circuits round him in token of respect, he re-mounted his chariot, and being seated, ordered his coachman to drive homewards towards the palace.1

Then Suddh6dana Raja, being surrounded by the circle of his ministers within the palace, suddenly the prince entered the assembly and came up beside the King, his hands clasped and his body bent, and spake thus—" Would that your majesty would hear me! I wish to become the mendicant, and to seek Nirvana! All worldly things, O King ! are changeable and transitory."

"Then Suddh6dana Raja, having heard these words, trembled as a tree shivers that is struck by the whole weight of an elephant's

1 Here follow some "verses of emancipation," which proceed from the air ;—these I omit.


body, and the tears coursed down his cheeks, while he gave way to his grief in these words—"Alas! alas! my son, let not such thoughts as these prevail with you; for, my son, you are young, and the time for your becoming a recluse is not arrived. After a few years more, I shall give up my kingdom and retire to the forest, and then you, my son, will succeed me. Let not my son think of giving up the world at his tender age!"

Then the prince answered, "Your majesty cannot prevail against my resolve! for what is it? Shall a man attempt to prevent another escaping from a burning house, and he not resist? Maharaja! all earthly things are changeable and transitory; and a man who knows this, and yet does not attempt to get free from the trammel of worldly occupations, is no wise man." Then for the sake of the King, he uttered the following Gatha [a mere repetition of the above sentiment]. Still Suddhodana Raja continued to urge his plea, and the ministers also addressed the prince and showed him how, according to the Vedas, every youthful monarch should fulfil his kingly duties, and afterwards, when old, forsake the world and become a recluse.

Then Suddhodana, hearing'.the words of his great ministers, burst again into tears and looked beseechingly at his son with an earnest countenance.

On this the prince, overcome with hesitation, retired to within the palace.

And so the women, seeing the prince, were exceedingly rejoiced; they clapped their hands and sang and danced, etc. Then the prince, having sat down, they surrounded him, and began to show such blandishments as in the Palace of Ishwara the Apsarasas use. Then the prince, by displaying the beautiful signs of his person (the superior and inferior marks), so overawed the women that they could but whisper among themselves—" Surely this is Chandra Deva, the Moon God, come down to earth;" and so by his power he restrained in them all tendencies to sensual pleasures, that they were neither able to desire any indulgence or even to laugh!1

Then Suddhodana Raja, after his son had left his presence, called for the coachman and asked him the circumstances of the

1 Such appears to be the character of the group in Fig. 1, Plate lxxiii, Tree and Serpent Worship.

last excursion. After which he resolved once more to increase the temptations to pleasure within the palace; he also surrounded it with additional enclosures, and at every gate placed guards of various descriptions to prevent all possible intercourse betwixt the prince and the outer world.

[Kiouen XV. contains 6,360 words, and cost 3.18 taels.]


The Exhortation of Udayi.

At this time the Chief Officer of Statel had a son called Udayi, a young man of distinguished ability and rising talent. Suddhodana Raja, having called this youth to his presence, laid the case of the prince before him, seeking counsel and advice. "By what stratagem," said he, "can we keep Siddartha in the palace, and prevent him becoming a recluse ?"

At the same time, the Raja summoned all the Sakya princes and begged [laid the same case before them] them also to use such expedients as they thought necessary to effect the same purpose. Then the Sakya princes undertook to assist in carrying out any measures necessary to prevent Siddartha leaving his home.

And now Suddhodana and the Sakya princes surrounded Kapilavastu with additional guards, placing at the head of each crossroad patrols of chariots, horses, elephants—who continually circumambulated the royal palace, so as effectually to prevent any escape.

Then again Mahaprajapati Gotami within the palace assembled all the women of pleasure and upbraided them with their want of influence over the mind of the prince—" Let none of you," she said, "fail to provide amusement for him night and day; let there be no interval of darkness, and never be without wine and burning perfumes; let there be guards at every door to prevent ingress or egress. For, remember, if the prince escape, there will be no other sources of pleasure within the palace."

1 That is, Mahanama or Basitu.

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