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youth newly born, the first-begotten of his mother, whose appearance is very beautiful, and the most distinguished both of that territory and of that family, in every respect most admirable and in every particular perfect. His body possesses the thirty-two signs of a great man and the eighty inferior signs. On the day of his birth the Brahmans calculated his horoscope, and this was the result, that in view of the marks above named on his body, if he remained in secular life he would became a Chakravartin, and rule over the four continents, possessed of all the insignia of a universal monarch; if he became a recluse that he would be a Budda Tathagata Arahato Sammasambuddha, and possessed of the ten names peculiar to so great a Saint, etc." At this time those two messengers returned immediately to Bimbasara Raja, and narrated what they had heard just in the same words, and exhorted him at once to raise an army and destroy the child, lest he should overturn the empire of the King.1 Then Bimbasara, the King of Magadha, replied at once, "Respectable SirsI speak not in this way; for if, as you say, this youth is to become a Holy Chakravarti Raja and to wield a Righteous sceptre, then it becomes me to reverence and obey him, in consideration of his spiritual power and dignity, and so we shall obtain peace and joy under his rule. If he becomes a Buddha, his love and compassion leading him to deliver and save all flesh—then we ought to listen to his teaching and become disciples. So that looking at each or either of these beneficent results, it is quite unnecessary to excite in yourself any desire to destroy such a Being."

The Gates around the Palace.

§ 4. At this time Suddhodana Raja caused a wall to be constructed around the palace which the Prince Royal occupied, which wall had only one gate to it; this gate (or wall) was named, "Ye

1 Here is another of the singular coincidences of the narrative with the Gospel History. The Thibetan books, moreover, tell us that Bimbasara had, after a long conflict with the King of Anga, been obliged to pay a general tax to mark his subjection to the latter. (Ass. Trans., xx, p. 47.)

8han" (desert—beast); behind the gates were barricades constructed, which required five hundred men to open and remove, and when the gate itself was rolled back on its hinges the sound thereof could be heard for a distance of half a yojana. Moreover, in the immediate garden-precinct of the palace he constructed a gate with a bolt and bar that required three hundred men to move, and when the gate was opened the sound thereof could be heard at a distance of a kr6sa; and then, again, in the very palace itself he constructed a similar gate that required two hundred men to open, and the sound whereof could be heard at a distance of half a krosa. These three gates were guarded within and without with guards armed with morion and glaive, spear and bow, and triple-pointed halberd (and other warlike weapons), to keep strictly the approaches to the palace. Such great preparations and precautions did the King take, lest his son should leave the allurements of his home and wander away to the wild mountain solitudes.

The voice from space exhorting him to flee.

§5. At this time dwelling in space there was a Devaputra called T'soPing (make-pitcher). This Deva, having watched the Prince Royal for ten years dwelling in the palace and enjoying every sensual pleasure, began to consider and think thus—" This Frabhapala Bodhisatwa Mahasatwa too long a time is indulging himself with worldly pleasures, dwelling in his palace and partaking of the five enjoyments of sense. We must not permit these lusts to cloud and besot him, his mind and senses to be darkened and deluded;— quickly! quick! flies the time. Prabhapala must be taught now to recognise the just limits of such things, and that he ought at once to let them go and leave his house (i.e., become a recluse). If I do not take some preparatory step in this direction, and incite him to flee from these things, it will be too late. I will now, therefore, recite some verses in praise of such a proceeding, and so urge and strengthen him to action." On this Deva Putra T'so-Ping, in the middle of the night, recited these verses—

"A man whose own body is bound with fetters, who yet Desires to release others from their bonds,

Is like a blind man who undertakes to lead the blind. But having one's own body free, and then to free others, is like a man who has eyes, undertaking to lead others. Thou virtuous one! Your years are now complete, It is time now to give up your home, and to accomplish your vows, etc."

T'so-Ping, having uttered these Gathas in the regions of space for the purpose of exciting spiritual reflection, and stirring up the prince to cultivate the virtuous and meritorious principles which were lying dormant in him, moreover caused the songs of the women of the harem, instead of fostering lustful desires, rather to encourage thoughts of Nirvana, and increase the prince's faith in it. And at the same time, of their own accord, the following verses were produced in exquisite tones :— "The things of the world are transitory

Just as the flash from the cloud;

Honour'd one! the time is come.

It becomes you to leave your house and home!

All the things of sense (sanscara) are impermanent,

Like the potter's earthen vessel!

As a thing borrowed for a moment's use,

As a wall made of dry earth heaped up,

Ere long to be cast down and destroyed.

Yea! as a heap of dust in summer-time.

Or as the sands on either bank of a river

E very existence implies impermanence j

Or as the light which is produced by a lamp

When produced quickly returns to nothingness;

Or as the restless and inconstant breeze

Which suddenly changes, and is never fixed

Without any semblance of constancy or endurance.

As the inside of the plantain fruit (or tree)

Shadowy as a madman's reflections;

Or as the empty fist which deceives a child,

So all things which exist (sanscara),

And all that is produced in the sequence of cause and effect,

And every individual substance

Is the mere figment of the ignorant,

Just as the silken thread Is produced from the distaff; Or as ft seed sown produces a sprout, remove the seed and there will be no sprout— So all relationships removed there is no knowledge (perfect idea)." At this time within the palace, when the ladies of the harem began to play upon the instruments of music, such sounds as the above, being in fact pious utterances of religion, proceeded from the instruments; all of them with a view to cause the prince to quit the world and prepare his heart for Supreme Wisdom.

The Excursions without the palace.

§ 6. Now it came to pass that the Devaputra T'so Ping desiring to draw the prince out of his palace and to bring before him in the garden certain sights which might induce him to quit the. fascinations of his present life,—to effect this, he caused the songs of the ladies who surrounded the prince to convey*this suggestion to him. The sounds seemed to him to be of this sort—" Let the Holy One listen! the grounds of the garden are lovely! adorned with choicest flowers and trees and fruits. There are birds of every kind whose notes are delightful to the senses." , The prince, hearing these utterances, resolved to proceed forth, and thereupon he summoned his charioteer, and addressed him thus—"My good charioteer! draw forth and prepare for me at once a choice and fitting chariot, as I wish to ride out and inspect the lovely grounds of the surrounding gardens."

The charioteer, so instructed, replied, "I will attend, my lord, to your commands."

Forthwith he sent the intelligence to Suddhodana, and made this communication—" Maharaja! be it known to you that the Royal Prince desires now to go forth into the garden grounds to inspect the beautiful earth."

Then Suddhodana caused to be proclaimed throughout Kapilavastu that all persons within and without the city should thoroughly cleanse, sweep, and water the streets and the precincts, so that not a stone, or a potsherd, or any pollution whatever should lie in the way; but that every place should be adorned and made delightfully smooth—that the choicest perfumes should be sprinkled on the ground, with flowers, etc.; moreover, that lamps should be hung up and down the streets, and that at the head of all the crossroads vessels full of water should be placed; moreover, that flowers should be hung up and flags, etc., on the trees; that they should be, moreover, ornamented with jewels and choice stones of every description. That, from all the trellis-worked lattices, bells should be hung, made of silver and ornamented with jewels, which as the wind sighed might send forth a pleasing sound. Moreover, that images of Suryadeva and Chandradeva, decorated with every ornament, should be placed, together with figures of the other Devas, between the lattice rails; and also flags, chamaras, etc., placed in the immediate neighbourhood of these figures.

In agreement with these commands the city of Kapilavastu was forthwith decorated as above, until it bore the appearance of the fairy city of the Gandharvas.

Moreover, the King commanded the garden to be swept and garnished in the same way, The trees of the garden, moreover, which had male names were decorated with ornaments worn by men, whilst those that had female names were decorated with ornaments worn by women.

Moreover, the King ordered it to be proclaimed throughout Kapilavastu by the sound of the drum and bell (gong)—" All ye people! remove from every part of the city and the highways whatever can remind the Prince of old age, disease, or death; let no blind man, or deaf or impotent person, be seen anywhere; let nothing of an unlucky or sinister character anywhere meet the eye of the Royal Prince I"

Forthwith, the charioteer prepared a delightful chariot, and harnessed thereto a team of horses beautifully decorated, having done which he proceeded to the presence of the Royal Prince and announced that all things were ready for the tour of inspection through the gardens.

Then the prince arose from his seat, and proceeded to the place where the chariot was awaiting him, and having ascended it, he assumed the attitude and look becoming his exalted position, and proceeded forthwith through the eastern gate of the city wall,

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