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could not conceal or overcome it, and all the people present, who had witnessed the proceeding, were pleased with the happy result, and shouted at the top of their voices; they danced and sang, and again they cried, " Hurrah! hurrah!" They struck up the music and waved their garments and their caps,in the air. But the Sakya youths were greatly cast down and dejected; they hung their heads in shame and disappointment, and each in stealth slipped away in every direction, and returned to their homes.

Meantime, Siddartha causing the choicest gems which he possessed, and every jewelled ornament to be brought forth, presented them to Gotami with which to adorn still more her person, and then, surrounded by five hundred dancing girls, she proceeded towards the palace of the prince her husband, and entering into the inner apartments she partook of the joys of wedded life.

[Kiouen XIII contains 6726 words, and was printed at a cost of 3.303 taels.]

Story of Gotami.

§ 1 . It came to pass in aftertime, when the world-honoured one had arrived at complete enlightenment, that Udayi asked him the following question—" What were the previous relations between yourself and Gotami that led to her selecting you as her husband from amongst all the Sakya princes?" To whom Buddha replied, "Listen, Udayi, and weigh my words well. It was not only on this occasion that Gotami rejected the proffered addresses of others and exhibited a preference for me; but I remember in ages gone by that in the Himalaya region there were assembled together every kind of beast, each of whom wandered here and there seeking food according to its taste and preference. At this time amongst those beasts there was a very beautifully marked tigress, unrivalled for grace of form and strength, her skin sleek and shining. All the male beasts were on this account enamoured of her, and wished to possess her as their own, one saying, 'Come with me,' and another 'Come with me.' So at last the beasts said one to another, 'Let us not quarrel over this matter, but let the lovely tigress herseli decide whom she will select for herself, and let him be her husband.' Now at this time I was king of these beasts. So, first of all came the buffalo king, and advancing to the tigress, he said, 'Amongst men my very droppings are used, to make the purest and sweetest incense! For this reason, oh! beautiful tigress, you ought to select me to be your husband.' Then the tigress replied to the buffalo king and said, 'Above the back of your neck I observe a high projection, fit for a yoke to rest upon by which you may draw a chariot or other vehicle—how can I select you, possessing such an objectionable form, or desire to have you as my lord and husband?' Then came a large white elephant towards the tigress and addressed her thus—' I am the great elephant-king of these snowy mountains—in all warfare I am used as one that invariably secures victory. Such vast strength do I possess, you cannot, refuse to select me as a husband.'

"Then the tigress replied, 'But you, if you come near to or hear the roar of the lion king, are filled with fear and trembling and take to instant flight, you give proofs of abject terror and confusion as you go, how then can I take you to be my husband?'

"At this time, in the midst of those beasts, the lion king of the herd came forward towards the tigress and spake thus—'Look well and examine my proportions and my form; see how in the fore part I am large and powerfully made, whilst in the flank I am graceful and sleek. I dwell in the midst of the mountains, and pass my life without restraint, and I am able to protect and feel for other creatures, I am lord of all the beasts, there are none who would dare to compete with me, whoever sees my form or hears the sound of my roar takes at once to instant flight; I am not able to speak further about my prodigious strength or my majestic and graceful form; but I ask you, dear tigress, as you know all this, to select me and take me as your husband.' Then the tigress replied to the lion and said, 'Your strength is very great, and your spirit high and noble, your body and entire mien are in the highest degree graceful; now, then, I have selected you as my husband, and I desire to honour and respect you henceforth as I ought to do.'

"Now at this time I was the king of these beasts, and this beautiful tigress was Gotaml that now is, the other beasts were the five hundred Sakya princes, and as the tigress then selected me after my address, so in the present life Gotami selected me as a husband in preference to all the Sakyas."

Life in the Palace.

§2. At this time SuddhodanaRaja established three separate palaces for the accommodation of the Prince. In the first palace there were appointed a certain number of women to attend upon him during the first portion of the night; in the second palace (or apartment of the palace) others were appointed for the middle of the night; and in the third, for the after part of the night. Yasodhar& was queen of the first, surrounded by twenty thousand attendants. Manodara (this means "thought-hold"] was queen of the second. [There are some Doctors of the Law who say that the attendants on Manddara only knew her name, but never saw her presence.] Over the third palace Gotami1 was queen. All the women who waited on the Prince were together six myriads. [Others say ten myriads.] In each apartment two myriads, all of them Sakyaborn, and besides these eight myriads of others who were not Sakyaborn.

Moreover, Suddh6dana, in recollection of what Asita had predicted, caused a vast hall to be constructed, with a half-subdued light, like that of the Autumn Sun when it is clouded over, in which matters might be only half observed as it were, and adapted for secret pleasures at any time; and all the approaches and passages connected with this he ordered to be constructed in a manner to conceal no dirt or refuse of any sort, lest the Prince, perceiving such things, should at any time be disgusted. Moreover, within the Palace he organised a performance of music of many thousand instruments; amongst which were the following:—A thousand flatlutes of twenty-three strings (hong-hau), a thousand harpsichords (ku-chang), a thousand five-stringed guitars (in), a thousand small drums, a thousand dulcimers with thirteen cords (chuk), a thou

1 There is much confusion in the different books about the wives of Buddha. In the present work there are three names given, viz.—Yasodhara, Manodara, and Gotami. In the Lalita Vistara the names are Yasodhara, daughter of Dandapani; Mrigadja (born of a Gazelle) and Utpalavarna (La Vist., p. 152, n.). The Chinese memoir, at the end of the Shan-men-yih-tung, gives three names, viz., Ma this corresponds to Gotami); Yaso(dhara), the mother of Rahula; Lou-ye, which is generally restored to Mrigadava. Burnouf [Introd., p. 278), quoting from Ksoma, makes sand large lutes (kam), a thousand viols (pi pa), a thousand soft drums (sai ku), a thousand large drums, a thousand fifes (tik i, a thousand organ-like instruments (sbang), a thousand copper cymbals, a thousand pandean pipes (sin), a thousand dulcimers (pat chuk), a thousand bamboo flutes with seven holes (chi), a thousand conch trumpets (lo). All these musical instruments, producing different sounds, were played and accompanied by singing, and regulated by movements of the hand by day and night, within the royal apartments of the Prince's Palace, without interruption— resembling in sound the uncertain and deep muttering that comes forth from a great cloud.1

Thus then the Prince passed his time in the midst of a hundred thousand most beautiful and accomplished women, enjoying every species of delight and receiving every service and attention at their hands, whilst they, adorned with every kind of ornament of gold, silver, and precious stones, etc., conspired to amuse and gratify him with music and dancing, even as Sakra participates in every sort of pleasure at the hands of his attendants, sometimes chatting with one in words of soft dalliance, glancing at one another, smiling at one another, embracing one another, sighing, ogling, looking at one another with head inclined, indulging in every kind of soft caress, etc. Thus! thus did the Prince pass his time with the beautiful women of his harem, and receive every possible pleasure, without leaving his palace.

Meanwhile Suddhodana Raja, in recollection of the prediction of Asita, endeavoured, as the Prince grew in years, to remove from him

the three wives to be Yasodhara, Gopa, and Utpalavarna; but in the Lalita Vistara (p. 96, n. i it is said that Yasodhara and Gopa are often confounded. Eitel, on the other hand, says (sub. voce, Gautami) that Kieou-i is the same as Mahaprajapati. Remusat (Fo-koue-ki, p. Tr, ) speaks of Kieou-i as the wife of Buddha, and the mother of Rahula; but again, Klaproth (Fo-koue-ki, p. 2(14) makes Kieou-i the same as Katchana, evidently guided by Turnour, who makes Buddha speak of his wife as Buddhakaehana, i.e , Yasodhara (R.A.S.B., 1838, p. 816). In any case I do not think Kieoucan be restored to Gopa, it must be either Gotami, or Kumari the former is the more probable.

1 This passage is well illustrated by Plate lxxiii., Fig. 1, Tree and Serpent Worship; the scene of that plate can be no other than the appearance of Udayi in the Zenana, to exhort the women to renewed blandishments (vide infra).

all acquaintance with suffering or other evil association, and surround him with subjects that might cause him to turn his mind to other pursuits than those of a religious life, and for this reason he restrained him within the precincts of the palace; even as the Gatha says,

"Maharaja, because the Prince was increasing in years, And because he was mindful of the words of Asita, Bemoved from him all knowledge of sorrow or crime. And constantly consulted with his wise minister (how to effect his purpose)."

The Fear of Bimbasara.

§ 3. In this manner for ten years the Prince lived within the palace of his father the Raja, nor once removed without.

Now at this time, in the Southern country of M agadha, there was a king whose family name was Sanrani,1 and his own name Bimbasara, who, being fearful of some enemy arising who might overturn his kingdom, frequently assembled his principal ministers to hold discussion with them on this subject. Being so assembled on one occasion, he addressed them thus—" Do you, my ministers, make diligent inquiry and search throughout the kingdom, and see if there be anyone therein capable of overcoming me (in personal strength), and so able to deprive me of my regal power; and if so, see to it that he is prevented from doing so." The ministers accordingly went forth and dispatched two messengers to go through the dominions of the Raja, and have a care to the directions of the king. These two men accordingly, having heard the directions, proceeded throughout the limits of the kingdom and its borders in order, and when about to return homewards there was a man came to them and said, "Away to the North, there is a very high precipitous mountain belonging to the Himalaya range; underneath the wooded belt of that mountain there is a separate tribe of people called the SaVyas; belonging to this race is a

1 Shen-lin-ni, doubtless for Srenika, Foucaux, 96, n.; or Srenya, vide 229, n. 2.

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