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set round with diamonds, in a gold snuff-box: the second prize was a little cupid, set with brilliants: besides these, there were a set of fine China for the tea-table, japanned trunks, fans, and many other things. All the men of quality were spectators, but the ladies alone had permission to shoot.

Among the diversions of the Germans, is riding through the streets on the snow in sledges, richly carved and gilt, drawn by horses, adorned with ribbons, feathers, and bells. The emperor, the empress, and archduchesses, attended by the principal courtiers, frequently perform this pastime attended by music.

Among the diversions also practised by the great, is hunting, particularly the wild boar; on these occasions the princes of this country make great preparations of new liveries, rich field equipages, and music, being attended with a numerous retinue.

The Germans are generally tall and well made: they are remarkable for their honesty; the fairness of their dealing, and their hospitality. Their courage and bravery is not disputed ; and with respect to learning, they are not inferior to any nation in Europe. As to their vices, they have been censured for their drunkenness; but they do not seem to be more guilty of this vice than the English ; nor is it practised among persons of high rank, either there or in Great Britain, so much as formerly. Their drink is beer and wine; and they have the latter upon very easy terms, for they have not only several wines of their own growth, but those of Hungary, France, and Italy, which lie contiguous to them, and where the best wines are produced.

With respect to their food, it generally consists of beef, mutton, pork, fowls, &c. as among us; but they are more thoroughly roasted and boiled than in England. They have one dish, which was greatly esteemed by the ancient Romans, as it is by them; and that is snails, which are dressed in various manners, and eaten as a great rarity by persons of quality: the snails are fed for this purpose, so as to grow to an extraordinary size ; and there is scarce a nobleman's garden, that has not a place set apart for breeding and fattening them.

Among the peculiarities of this country, instead of the cheerful fire-side, they heat their rooms with stoves. And not only sleep on a feather-bed, but instead of blankets, have a light feather-bed covering, laid upon the upper sheet, and covered with a counterpane.-Wonders of Nature and Art.

61. Various Orders of Druids. The whole of the society was divided into different ranks distinguished by their habit, and subject to the Arch-Druids, of whom there were two in Britain, residing in the islands of Anglesea and Man. The priesthood passed by descent from father to son, and from the office of Sacristan, or keeper of the holy utensils, &c. they rose by interest to the most dignified. Out of their most eminent members the Arch-Druid was nominated, especially if any one were of remarkable reputation for learning or sanctity; though when there were several candidates of equal merit, an election took place, which was sometimes terminated only by arms. Antiquarians are not agreed as to the other orders into which this priesthood was divided, with regard to their studies and religious offices ; though it is generally admitted, that they

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consisted principally of Bards, Eulages, Vates, and Druids, properly so called, which being the most numerous of all, gave name to the whole society. The Bards were the progenitors of the heroic, historical, and genealogical poets of Germany, Gaul and Britain. They sang to the lyre or harp, the actions of illustrious men, and do not appear either to have interfered with the ecclesia astical office, or to have introduced any thing of a religious nature into their poems.

In those ancient reliques of the British language called Triades, which have been regarded as genuine remains of the Druidical ages, the duties of the Bards are said to be to 6 reform the morals and customs, to secure peace, and so celebrate the praises of all that is good and excellent. Three things” they continue, are forbidden to a Bard ; immorality, to satirize, and to bear arms.” The influence of Bardism appears to have been so extensive, that some have considered it to embrace all the knowledge of ancient times, Druidism forming its religious code, and Ovatism its arts and sciences. The Eubages were professors of Natural Philosophy; and the Vates executed most of the higher offices of religion, such as performing sacrifices, and composing hymns in honour of the gods. The Celtic nations esteemed them as sacred persons, whose verses were divinely inspired, and gave them the name of Faids, or prophets. The order of Druids, however, appears to have been the most ordinary and familiar priesthood of Britain: they studied Theology, and performed not only the usual offices of religion, but educated youths, interpreted the laws, and acted as judges in all capital matters. It is possible that some of the austere Druids lived in eelibacy and retirement, but the duties of many must have required a more secular and publie way of life; and that numbers were actually married, is shown by the descent of the priesthood, and another order of persons connected with them called Druidesses.

This name is generally appropriated to the wives of the Draids, one class being continually occupied with religious duties, and conversing with their husbands only once in the year;

whilst others lived with them in the ordinary manner; and an inferior degree consisted of the female servants belonging to the temples. The most sacred and important rank, bowever, was composed of such as were vowed to perpetual virginity, and resided together in sequestrated sisterhoods. About A. D. 45, these vestals were nine in number. Their principal characteristic was divination, but they also professed the working of miracles, prophecy, curing the most inveterate diseases, raising of storms, and converting themselves into all kinds of animals; though they disclosed none of their predictions but to mariners, and such as visited their island purposely to consult their oracle. They had white hair, and like the Druids, their habit on certain public occasions was a white tunic and linen cloak with clasps, a broad girdle of brass-work, their feet uncovered, and a magic staff in their hands. When Suetonius Paulinus, in A. D. 6), invaded the Isle of Anglesea, which was then the residence of the Arch-Druid, his army was struck with consternation at finding a considerable number of these Druidesses, in funeral habits and disordered hair, carrying torches, and running up and down the ranks of the British army, imprecating the wrath of Heaven upon the invaders of their country. Their sacrificial duties towards

captives, however, were still more ferocious ; since they first rushed upon them with drawn swords, and having cut them down, dragged them to a capacious labrum, or cistern, on which stood the officiating Druidess, who plunged a long knife into each of the victims. The bodies were then opened and examined by the assistant, who, from the appearance of the entrails, pronounced their divinations, which were immediatly communicated to the army or the council. Every year it was their custom to unroof their Temple, and, by their united labours to re-cover it before sunset, during which ceremony, if any one lost or dropped her burthen, she was torn to pieces by the rest, and her limbs carried round the sacred place in Bacchanalian procession.-Illus. of British History

62. Columbus.

COLUMBUS, who was well skilled in astronomy, geography, and navigation, had long formed a resolution of sailing in search of a country beyond the Atlantic ocean, and had made application to several European states and princes, particularly our Henry VII., to grant him some ships and money to proceed on his intended voyage. After many solicitations, he at length obtained the desired assistance from Ferdinand and Isabella, then king and queen of Spain, who provided him with money to fit out three small ships for the expedition. This little squadron, manned only with ninety men, set sail from Palos in Andalulusia, on the third of August 1492, arrived at the Canaries the twelfth, and left those islands the first of September, directing their course to the

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