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head of the animal world, and of this earth in general. A few steps backward and we should see a second blessing disappear from this precious inheritance of humanity, and then a third; religion too, and finally language. A retrospective glance at those remote times, such as our age affords above all its predecessors, liberates our soul by making it partake of a past infinity. When Goethe, absorbed in osteological studies, confessed to have meditated amidst world-stirring events his discovery of the physical affinity of man to brutes, Börne's anger was roused, his ardent spirit yearning impatiently for deeds. And when the July revolution broke out, and the faithful Eckermann, finding Goethe greatly excited on the subject of the great event that had happened at Paris, was about to begin to speak of the faults of the overthrown ministers, Goethe replied, “ We do not seem to comprehend each other. I do not speak at all of those people; my mind is occupied with quite different things. I am speaking of the dispute that has openly broken out in the Academy between Cuvier and Geoffroy de St. Hilaire, of such paramount importance to science. Henceforth mind will rule in France too in the investigation of nature, and prevail over matter. Glimpses will be caught of great maxims of creation, of God's mysterious workshop. Now," continued Goethe, “Geoffroy de St. Hilaire too is decidedly on our side, and with him all his more distinguished disciples and adherents in France. This event is of incredible value to me, and I justly exult over the finally arrived universal triumph of a cause to which I have devoted my life, and which is pre-eminently my own." The idea the victory of which Goethe at that time saw with his mind's eye, and which Geoffroy de St. Hilaire declared to be his own—the idea of the evolution of the world—will, I doubt not, emancipate the world as much as any of the greatest historical achievements did. Nor do I fear being misconstrued when I own to you, my honoured fellow-towns-men and women, that the thought has often floated through my mind that the soil of this city of ours possesses some claim to this liberating idea of evolution; that in this town, which owes so much to natural development, the voice of admonition sounds doubly loud to continue to meditate the idea of the development of humanity, aye! perhaps to think it out to an end. This idea will one day teach us what man has to expect and to claim for himself from humanity and from nature. And as it opens to us a vista into the future, so with it begins to open a retrospective view of the past, just as happened with space from the moment when the sky ceased to arch over us as a stony cover, and we began to cast glances into, and indulge in speculations on, the unbounded universe. History is no longer a limited horizon; the same things are not in wearisome uniformity repeated from century to century, but in unfathomed depths one form of existence succeeds another. Nature reveals to us her wonders in an infinite series, and the soul of man is elevated, becoming a heavenly genius which soars with mighty wing through eternity.

VI.

On the Primitive Home of the Indo-Europeans.

The discovery of the primitive stock of the IndoEuropeans, which has been made within the past sixty years, is a fact of incredible importance, and of incalculable influence on the conception of man's earliest past. The almost marvellous results which our century has obtained in the decipherment of the hieroglyphics and cuneiform inscriptions led to a direct knowledge, gained from the monuments themselves, of the life of peoples which one could not till then have hoped ever to see resuscitated from its millennial sleep. Historical details have been authenticated, dating from times which fancy had ever regarded as its indisputable domain and had populated with grotesque shapes. But the people of the pyramids and hieroglyphics is, notwithstanding, an historical, well-known, palpable people. It is certainly astounding that we should have learned to find some centuries before Moses—that earliest historian, as the last century was fond of calling him—the names of Palestinian cities--.g., of the still existing Zephath—on Egyptian monuments. We are strangely moved and feel a thrill of awe running through us, as on entering a mysterious sanctuary, when we see before our eyes the veil lifted from the deeply-hidden and dark past. But such more especially are our emotions when we approach the primitive stock from which the head and flower of the whole human race was destined to proceed—the stock from which has sprung the present civilised Europe with its mighty colonies, and not less so a large portion of the population of Asia, as far as the boundaries of China. We have here, in this people in its primitive condition, a germ before us with an abundance of developments latent' within it, as it were; and though history does not contain any record of this people, and it has not left any monuments itself, so that we are able only to infer its existence, yet we can by no means doubt its having existed. How did a people in such a primitive condition live? How did it think? how speak? These questions alone have a deep interest; but to them must be added that all the civilisation of Europe, and, more or less, the condition of mankind at the present time, have been connected with the fortunes of that primitive people and swayed by its intellectual capacities, thus pointing back to the origin of that people for their own.

On its being first remarked that in the languages of Hindostan and Persia words and forms of words occur bearing a striking resemblance to Latin, Greek, and German words, many endeavoured to account for this singular phenomenon by a mutual intercourse, which they supposed to have carried foreign words

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from one people to another. The Germans have borrowed their marsch (march) from the French; halt (stop), which we must presume to be a more German notion, was given to the French in exchange for it; and pascholl is even Russian. Now it is no doubt somewhat farther from Benares or Pondicherry to Frankfort or Augsburg, and no 1813 probably ever brought Germans and Hindoos together in a battle of nations. Nevertheless, but I will let Adelung speak here, because it is not uninteresting to see how a man of considerable linguistic knowledge and much judgment could, in 1806, still think on such questions. “That even German elements should be found in Persian has excited wonder, in some even astonishment. The fact is undeniable; and this German so found in Persian does not consist only in a considerable number of radical sounds and words, but also in derivative syllables and even grammatical forms. . . . This phenomenon may be accounted for in two ways: either by a subsequent intermixture after the two languages were already formed, or by a common descent from à more ancient mother tongue. The situation and history of Persia seem to favour the former view. Being situated on the way which nearly all the savage hordes from Upper Central Asia had to take to the West, it could not well continue wholly free from an admixture with other conquering and conquered peoples. It is more especially known that the Goths dwelt for several centuries by the Black, and Caspian Seas—i.., at the gates of Persia; that,

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