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inck. But sittinger for fear is absurd li

and children from disease and deprivation. Also, His wife had come with a prattling pickanniny the wiping out of thousands of the best brains who was trying to play with him and could not of the people—the potential inventors, scientists, understand why it was being thwarted and held poets, philosophers, philanthropists, and sociolo- back. But sitting up had been absolutely intergists of a dozen nations. Also, a reversal to dicted the father for fear of strain; and the the ideals of primative man—the internecine mother had to suppress this absurd little creapassions and hatreds which give birth to the ture as best she could. I had never quite known lust for destruction.

the meaning of the word resignation until, in . .? - one on one

these circumstances, I contemplated the quiet, As one of the consequences of the war there yearning face of the suffering negro. A few is much talk about heroism. · Men who can face nights, after, while a nurse was watching him, artillery fire, or lead a bayonet charge are being his whole body was gripped for a moment in a extravagantly lauded for their courage. As a mighty convulsion, and then he turned flaccid friend of mine points out, heroism-or courage- upon his back. The death was merciful; for the of this character is not of a very high order. It aneurism had ruptured while he slept.” is in the main physical—the unconsciousness of Here is real heroism-a conquest of the spirit danger which a certain type of men share with as well as of the body. How many of us are the lower animals. The more highly a man is capable of it? developed spiritually the more prone is he to experience in his own person the pain, the mental Among the plagues of the

Among the plagues of the battlefield Dr. anguish, the fear. the exaltation, the passion and Achilles Rose, of New York, gives a prominent the degradation that come with physical strife. place to the body louse. This little pest, it Therefore, the man without feeling is likely to seems, is an inseparable companion of the solbecome the military leader, because of his very dier in the field, and makes no distinction beindifference to results as affecting himself or

tween officer or private, peasant or aristocrat. others. And men of this stripe are not those The incessant torments of this creature make who lead the human race to nobler heights.

sleep difficult, and waking-hours a torment. On The greatest courage and it is unrewarded account of the lack of the conveniences of civ-is that which some men exhibit in the face ilization and the sanitary necessities of civil of certain failure, or certain death. The indi- life it is almost impossible to get rid of the invidual who can look calmly and cheerfully into sect during a campaign. And the louse carries the unknown, look Death bravely and squarely

disease. It may transmit typhus, typhoid, and in the face, without drum-beat or battle-cry to milder ailments, and it is known to be the carcheer him on-he is the real hero. As an illus- rier for plague. tration, read the following from Doctor Huber's essay on “The Cowardice of Brave Men.

We have elsewhere called attention to the “I am thinking," said the doctor, “of a case

craze for legislation, with which this country of serenest heroism in which fear had no part,

is cursed rather more than it is blessed. The of calm anticipation of certain death, the mo

Pittsburgh Dispatch has some pertinent remarks ment of which could not, however, be assured.

upon this subject:

“A count made in the library of congress There walked into the hospital where I serve

shows that the national and state legislatures a negro, not much over thirty, having the soft,

passed in the five years 1909-1913, some 62,014 musical voice of his people, a smile that would

laws, and that in the same period there were 65,make you, knowing his sure fate, choke to see, 379 decisions by state and national courts of and an ashy-gray hue upon his dark face. He last. re

dark face. He last resort reported in 630 volumes. How much bared his breast, from which a tumor protruded of the congestion in the courts and delay in the size of a cocoanut cut in half; the sharp the administration of law so much complained stabbing pain of which he complained indicated of is due to this craze for the hasty making of how the aneurism was eating through his ribs new laws and the interminable litigation that and breastbone; the veins about his chest were arises out of them? engorged; one could see the heaving, expansive “Although it is probable that lawyers make up pulsation; the humming bruit could be heard as a majority of every legislature, the bulk of the well as felt. He was at once put to bed where new legislation added to the statute-books each good physicians and kindly nurses could be with year is framed and fathered by members having him constantly. I was relieved he did not ask little or no knowledge of existing law or experime what his chances were; indeed, he knew as ence in drafting legislation. As a result there well as I as to that. Next day I visited him. is the duplication, the contradiction and the

lieve of the pastuch a bad femark Twain's op

emasculation of existing statutes, the careless Irrespective of their opinions regarding the or unintelligible phrasing that defeats the pur- rights and wrongs of the nations engaged in the pose of framers and clogs the courts.

Great War, there are many who will agree with "It is surely time that the impulse to rush a the opinions presented in Robinson's editorial, new law upon the statute-books as a remedy for “Are Emperors and Czars Human Beings?” pubeach and every problem was checked or at least lished in the last number of the Critic and modified sufficiently to assure that the addi- Guide: tional legislation is actually needed and accom- "This question has been bothering me a good plishes what is aimed at. The suggestion was deal. It has been with me for some time, both made at the recent bar association meeting in during waking and sleeping hours. Are they— Washington that there should be a drafting bu- the Kaisers, Emperors, Czars, etc.-human bereau of expert counsel at each capitol to see ings more or less like us, or do they belong to that measures were written intelligibly, that an entirely different species? Is it at all possithey were drawn •with reference to existing leg- ble for us to have an idea of their mentality, of islation and the decisions of the courts."

the workings of their mind and soul? No, it is impossible. We, ordinary mortals feel distressed

and sleep uneasily when we do anything wrong, His Satanic Majesty is busy these days, and

when we cause suffering to a single human behe is pretty much everywhere, especially in Eu

ing; a tear that was shed through our fault lies rope. Evidently he is popular—perhaps he has

like a stone on our heart. How then can they been abused and vilified. If all we are to be

-William, the Crown Prince, Franz Joseph, lieve of the paeans in praise of war are true,

Czar Nicholas and their entourage-rest their then he isn't such a bad fellow after all—for

heads on their pillows, how can they live at war is hell! Let us quote Mark Twain's opin

all when they see before them—with their physions regarding the devil:

ical or mental eyes—the terrible anguish they I am quite sure that (barone) I have no

have caused, the broken hearts, the destroyed race prejudices, and I think I have no color

homes, the burning cities and villages, the oceans prejudices nor caste prejudices nor creed preju

of tears, the rivers of blood, the mountains of dices. Indeed, I know it. I can stand any som mangled bodies? Do you mean to tell me that ciety. All that I care to know is that a man

an ordinary human being could cause all this is a human being—that is enough for me; he

and still bear to live? Never. No, those peocan't be any worse. I have no special regard

ple do not belong to the human species. Through for Satan; but I can at least claim that I have

a perverse bringing up everything human in no prejudice against him. It may even be that I

them is enucleated, destroyed, and they are lean a little his way, on account of his not hav

taught to look at human beings as at cattle, ing a fair show. All religions issue bibles against

whose happiness or unhappiness is of little consehim, and say the most injurious things about

quence, whose feelings and sufferings need not be him; but we never hear his side. We have none

taken into consideration, whose very lives amount but the evidence for the prosecution, and yet to nothing. when their own caprice, ambition or we have rendered the verdict. To my mind this

desire for conquest come into play.' is irregular. Of course Satan had some kind of a case; it goes without saying. It may be a poor one, but that is nothing; that can be said Loads of instances have been told of the speak. about any of us. As soon as I can get at the er's misinterpreting the look of interest on a facts I will undertake his rehabilitation myself, hearer's face. But one of the best and most if I can find an impolitic publisher. It is a recent instances of that, in which the fall of the thing which we ought to be able to do for any speaker's pride and inspiration was hardest, ocone who is under a cloud. We may not pay him curred to John D. Wells of the Buffalo News, reverence, for that would be indiscreet; but we who does platform work. Once at Sherman, N. can at least respect his talents. A person who Y., he was pleased to notice an old lady who has for untold centuries maintained his impos- never took her eyes from his face. Afterward ing position of spiritual head of four-fifths of she said: the human race, and political head of the whole “I was mightily interested " of it, must be granted the possession of execu- “Yes, I was so glad you seemed to be enjoytive abilities of the highest order. I would like ing my lecture." to see him. I would rather see him and shake "Oh, sir, it wasn't anything you said, but I his tail than any member of the European con- was wondering if you were any relation to the

Wellses in Jamestown."


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A PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF THE The second step was to immunize every child not SCHICK TEST FOR DETERMINING already immune. The Schick test was utilized THE PRESENCE OF IMMUNITY TO to detect those who were susceptible, and the findDIPHTHERIA.

ings from this investigation indicated that about Of late, declares the Boston Medical and Sur- one-half of all the children were naturally immune. gical Journal, research workers and clinicians have A majority of the ninety carriers were on the expressed increasing confidence in the reliability immune list, and it was regarded as probable of the Schick test in the detection of susceptibil- that their immunity accounted for their freedom ity to diphtheria, and a practical illustration of from clinical symptoms. About 75 per cent of its great usefulness is afforded in the report by the children who had had clinical diphtheria the New York State Health Department of the showed a positive Schick reaction within from six suppression of an outbreak of this disease which to twelve weeks after the disease. Each of the recently occurred at the Howard Orphanage and non-immunes was immunized with 1,000 units of Industrial School at King's Park, Long Island. antitoxin, and at the end of thirty days the For those who are not familiar with this simple Schick test was repeated, when this was observed test it may be stated that it consists in injecting to be positive in about 75 per cent of the cases superficially under the skin a dose of diphtheria which had been found positive at the first test. toxin one-fifteenth that which is lethal to a guinea- Each of these positive cases was then given anpig. A red spot developing about the site of the other dose of 1,000 units of antitoxin. injection, in about forty-eight hours, indicates Schick tests made seven days afterwards showed a susceptibility to diphtheria, while if no reaction that 60 per cent of the children were again positakes place it may be inferred that diphtheria tive, indicating that their bodies had destroyed antitoxin is naturally present in the blood, and the second dose of antitoxin in about one-quarter that the subject is immune to the disease.

of the time which they had required to eliminate During the month of April and May last, six the first dose. This is explained by the fact that mild cases of diphtheria were discovered at the diphtheria antitoxin is a foreign protein, and orphanage, and during June six others occurred. that one dose sensitizes the body against succeedCultures taken from all the well children in the ing doses. Another measure was to remove adefirst week in May showed that 90 out of some noids and the tonsils from eighteen of the car260 inmates, whose ages ranged from two to six- riers, and of these, sixteen became free from diphteen years, were carriers of diphtheria germs. theria germs immediately after the operation. The

The conditions for the prompt suppression of result of these various measures was a progressive the epidemic by the usual methods were unfavor- diminution in the number of carriers, and by the able, as the children were largely of unhealthy first week in August only three or four remained. stock, the funds of the institution meagre, and This interesting and most instructive report is the helpers few and unskilled. Accordingly, the made by Dr. Overton, sanitary supervisor of Sufassistance of the experts of the Research Labora- folk and Nassau Counties; Dr. Zingher, bacteritory of the New York City Department of Health ologist of the Research Laboratory of the New was secured, and by the application of recently York City Department of Health; and Dr. Turdeveloped methods the outbreak was soon under rell, health officer of Smithtown, Suffolk County, control. The first step was to take cultures from and the following conclusions are drawn by them both the throat and nose of every inmate, and from the outbreak:it is interesting to note that in many instances it 1. The Schick test is of great value in detectwas found that the nasal culture was positive ing susceptible persons in an epidemic of diphwhen the throat culture was negative. The car theria. riers were then isolated in separate dormitories. 2. One thousand units of antitoxin usually affords protection for from twenty-one to twenty- been established at Rouen, in Normandy, the staff eight days, while a second dose, as a rule protects and nurses being drawn largely from the Glasfor only about a week, as shown by the Schick gow Royal Infirmary. test.

The German army medical corps is said to con3. The indications of the Schick test are that sist of over 12,000 surgeons, including many of the immunity conferred by an attack of diphtheria the most eminent scientists of the day. In Engis usually of short duration.

land it has been necessary to augment the regular 4. The removal of adenoids and diseased ton- medical corps by volunteers. sils is a valuable means of freeing diphtheria car The medical profession has responded to the riers from germs.

call of the country in a manner worthy of its

traditions. Many have joined the Army Medical RED-CROSS WORK ABROAD.

Service, and not a few are already at the front. Every good American should be interested in In order to serve their country in this way, some the earnest, useful work of our Red Cross sur- have given up professional posts or have left geons and nurses now serving abroad. For the their practices at considerable personal sacrifice. information of our readers we print the following A strong movement has also been started in the notes, clipped from an exchange:

profession with a view of carrying on the pracThe American Red Cross unit assigned to Ger- tices of those away at the war, so that they should many has been dispatched to Breslau in Silesia, receive them intact at the conclusion of hostilities. and the unit assigned to Austria has gone to

Another commendable scheme provides free mediVienna. The unit assigned to Russia reached cal service to the wives of the soldiers and sailors Petrograd on Oct. 10, on its way to Kiev, where away on active service. Those medical men unit will be stationed at a hospital of 200 beds. able by reasons of age limit or from the nature

Despite a rough voyage, all the members of of their work to help in the above mentioned the American party are in good health and en- ways, have subscribed liberally to the various thusiastic. They have been received at the prin excellent funds organized for the relief of discipal stations along the route by delegations of tress or for augmenting the comforts of the troops. physicians, some with bands. At Raume, Finland, on the way from Stockholm, the Americans SPASMOPHILIA—THE TENDENCY TO were greeted by all the doctors in the city who

HAVE SPASMS. gave them an impressive welcome. At Petrograd Many children have a tendency to recurring they were escorted to the Emperor's waiting room, convulsions or "spasms.” Why this is so we do where they were welcomed by Count Robrinsky, not surely know, although there is a feeling that chief of the Russian Red Cross, as the only something is wrong with the calcium metabolism foreign Red Cross corps sent to Russia.

in many of these cases. An interesting discusRussian officials attach importance to the Amer- sion of the problem appears in the Archives of ican expedition as likely to add to the cordial re- Pediatrics, written by Dr. Heinrich Reye. Comlations between the two countries. The American ing to the question of treatment he writes as folsurgeons probably will be equipped with Russian lows: uniforms so that they escape being made the tar- Most authors recommend that the spasmophilic get of unthinking soldiers.

infant be put on mother's milk if possible or that A movement is in progress for increased hos- a wet nurse be secured. In a large number of pital facilities at Petrograd on account of over- cases this measure is sufficient to cause disappearcrowding at Warsaw.

ance of symptoms. When gastrointestinal disAn additional consignment of 3,000 pounds of turbances are present it is best to discontinue all bandages and 100 stretchers has been sent to Rus- food for twenty-four hours and put the child on a sia from New York aboard the Dwinski, sailing tea diet. If severe laryngospasms and eclamptic for the port of Archangel.

conditions are present it is advisable to evacuate On Oct. 12 the American hospital relief ship the bowels with 5 or 10 Ce. of ol. ricini. After Red Cross sailed from Rotterdam for New York, the twenty-four-hour water or tea diet it is usually bringing home 150 refugee American passengers. best to start with 5 per cent gruels, to which 3

On Oct. 16, the total of the New York Red to 5 per cent of lactose is added. After three Cross fund amounted to $254,761 and the Amer- to seven days the caloric value of the food may ican Ambulance Hospital (Neuilly) fund reached be increased by adding precipitated and washed $84,158. The Belgian relief fund is about $140,- casein and fat. As soon as possible milk should 000.

be slowly added. Though relapses are to be A Scottish Red Cross hospital of 100 beds has feared, as yet a carbohydrate diet poor in salt


On ng home 150 mm Rotterdam,

lasting longer than eight days has also its dangers protected against infections, particularly whoopin infancy, especially if there occurs loss in weight, ing-cough. subnormal temperature and collapse. Nothing is According to Finkelstein and Zybell, phossurer to prevent the appearance of spasmophilia phorus and cod-liver oil is not a panacea. In than nursing the breast. If bottle feeding has twenty-four out of thirty-two of Finkelstein's to be resorted to, it should be done with limited cases the electrical irritability returned to normal, amounts of milk, that is, 34 of a liter or at most but it took five weeks to do it. Dubois and Stolte 1 liter per day in order to avoid the dangers of call attention to the fact that the excretion as well laryngospasms and eclamptic seizures as much as as the disposition of the slowly soluble calcium possible.

takes place only very gradually. For that reaNetter recommends calcium chloride as a drug son we do not see any effect of calcium when used for tetany. He uses 2 grams with prompt re- therapeutically until after weeks of treatment. sults in spasms of babies. Larger doses act even From the experiments of Schabad, we know that better. Rosen and others recommend phosphorus 20 to 60 per cent. of calcium acetate is retained and cod-liver oil in the proportion of 0.01 to 100. by the organism. Calcium phosphate and calAccording to Schabad this gradually leads to in- cium citrate are not retained at all. Calcium creased calcium rentention. L. F. Meyer has seen acetate also improves the calcium retention of the good effects from large doses of calcium bromide food. According to Schabad the good effects of in cases of laryngospasm. He gave 2 to 3 drams phosphorus and cod-liver oil in spasmophilia deper day. Quest drew no conclusions for treat- pends in the fist place upon its power of increasment from his experiments. He thinks that the ing the calcium retention. Rosenstern in his incalcium metabolism is not sufficiently known in vestigations gave to infants 110 grams of a 3 per man and that much depends on the form in which cent. CaCl, solution. He usually noticed a quickly calcium is given. Other minerals and organic appearing and also rapidly disappearing effect constituents are probably important in the re- upon the cathodal opening contractions. Howtention of calcium. For this speaks the favorable ever, he did not succeed in influencing them for results obtained by the change of diet and by any length of time. The infants did not take giving phosphorus. Finkelstein thinks that phos- kindly to the solution and occasionally vomiting phorus is an antispasmodic, but its effects are occurred. The maximum effect appeared six hours not remarkable and not pronounced without after the administration; twenty-four hours later change of diet. It is possible that the phosphorus the reaction had disappeared. Trousseau's sign produces a favorable effect on the calcium metab- was absent only occasionally. The severe laryngoolism.

spasms disappeared occasionally for twelve hours. With children over a year, milk can be dropped In twenty-four cases Risel saw the electrical irfor a week without harm. In all cases of spasmo- ritability returning to normal under the effect philia, cod-liver oil or phosphorus and cod-liver of the calcium acetate. Bogen and von Pirquet oil is indicated. On this alone, in many cases, call attention to the fact that the permanent givwithout any change in the diet, the symptoms of ing of calcium has no effect. According to Grosspasmophilia will disappear. Phosphorus with ser, the calcium retention may increase over 60 other oils is ineffectual. The phosphorus must be ser cent after the injection of calcium glycerofresh and renewed every two weeks at least, as it phosphate. The calcium content of the food is is said to have no action if oxidized. Only ele- also retained better. Calcium chloride as well as mentary phosphorus seems to have any influence calcium lactate and calcium acetate used subcuon spasmophilia or rachitis.

taneously produce infiltration and pain. Berend Chloral is very useful as a symptomatic means made this same observation. According to Zybell to arrest the convulsions. It has the advantage the favorable effect of calcium was demonstrable over chloroform that it can be left in intelligent in seventeen of the twenty-eight cases. The imlay hands. The proper dosage is about .5 gram, provement, however, was restricted in most cases best given by enema. Young children will bear to a temporary change in the K.O.C., while the this dose without harm. Usually it leads to subsi- clinical symptoms remained unchanged. In fourdence of the spasm in a few minutes and sleep teen cases the K.O.C., increased after the adminisfor several hours. The same dose can be repeated tration of calcium, so that its irritating effects the same day, or even for several days, until were thus demonstrated. From Zybell's more rethe causal treatment becomes effective. Children cent investigations, it appears that the antispaswith predisposition to spasmophilia should be kept modic effects of calcium were seen in 61 per cent from excitement and from eating copiously; they of the cases. In twenty-five it seemed to have no should be much in the open air, and especially effect, in fourteen it had an irritating effect, while

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