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The doctor no longer treads the forest pathways, but hurries in the time-eliminating automobile to the bedside of his patient. He no longer studies the qualities of herbs and simples, for there are assistants to him in the world of such discovery; and he no longer resorts to many of the prescriptions and remedies of the olden time, but he deals, instead, with active principles.

So broadened has become the field of his endeavor that he realizes the fact that in specialization is strength, and the world is benefited by his decision.

The "new" doctor has at his command the use

of better means of battling with diseases once counted too formidable—diphtheria and other maladies--and he utilizes them. He works band in hand with the scientist, who may not be a doctor. He knows that the triumphs of his profession have but begun and that, if they are to continue, if the doctor is to be to humanity the reliance he has been for many a century, unceasing labor is involved. He welcomes it. Profoundly educated as he may be, polished and easy man of the modern world as oftimes he is, he is no less earnest than was his prototype, his fine predecessor of the backwoods.


By LUCIEN D. CLARK, M. D., Akron, Ohio.


E A DROWNING man will grasp This is a constant natural law. The calluses
most any thing in order to save represent nature's protection against abrasion,
his life, so do tubercular subjects and the endurance of the day's work is nature's
grasp at every drug or nostrum endowment to resist fatigue.
exploiters claim has curative As soon as you cease to demand the protec-

value, and it seems the nearer tion against abrasion, or the ability to resist the sands of life have run, the greater the desire fatigue, the hands again become soft, and the of the sufferer to get well, and the stronger is tissues loose their tone, or, in other words, your the faith that there must be some medicine that power of resistance has become less, and you are will help them.

now less able to resist bacterial invasion or to That patients so afflicted have recovered while recover from an infection, once introduced. taking some popular anti-turburcular remedy can To put tuberculous patients to bed and codnot be denied, upon close study of these cases, dle them because they are ill is almost suicidal, those recovering have invariably had the assist- as their strength and vitality slowly but surely ance of other measures, to which the credit of sinks to the level of the demands made by the their recovery belongs.

patients. It is very desirable in the beginning, to im- You may meet with remonstrance from both press the patient with the fact that it is up to the patient and relatives at any suggestion for him if he recovers, that medicines are not cura- activity on part of the patient, for perhaps they tive, and that if he will make a demand on na- have noticed a rise in temperature after exercise. ture for increased resisting power, in her own I pay little attention to temperature, and if way, nature will respond.

the patient has been living with a thermometer I have gained the confidence and cooperation under his tongue, I take it from him, and he of my patients through presenting the following will not be so apprehensive of any seeming change homely illustration :

for the worse, and will have more time to think Their hands are usually soft, and were they of getting well. to take a pick and shovel and try to do a day's As we find bacteria almost everywhere, it folwork, they would soon tire out, and their hands lows that we can not escape them. They are become quite sore. But on the other hand, were in the air we breathe, we take them on and in they to work ten minutes one day, fifteen min- our uncooked food and drink. Some gain access to utes the next, and so on, by the time a month the body tissues through contusions, abrasions, had elapsed, their hands would be callused and unpunctured and lacerated wounds, yet we do not they would be doing a fair day's work—some- always suffer from various infections. thing impossible on the first day.

In truth, we are often unaware of the pres

ence of a nidus of bacteria, yet we may be the This should not be more than a city block and host for years for one or more varieties of bac- return for the first walk, and should be done teria, and seemingly be none the worse for it. thrice daily before meals for a period of three On the other hand, a person may pick up a few days. Increase the distance about the distance of bacteria, and in a very short time this person is a city block every third day, until two or more ill, his illness directly traceable to the invasion of miles are done before eating. a definite infection, either single or mixed.

After returning from each walk, the patient In the latter case, advance of the infection is should lie down and fully relax until rested. not due to the degree or virulence of the infec- As to diet, I always have patients adhere to a tion, but the lowered power of the individual to milk and egg diet where possible, to which is resist invasion of the bacterium.

added some alcoholic stimulant-either cognac, The individual whose power to resist bacterial brandy, Jamaca rum, whiskey or sherry wine, in invasion is par or better, is in little danger from the order named, and in sufficient quantity so the infections of various kinds, and may be classed patient will know he has taken a stimulant, but as immune.

never to the point of confusion. This may be one Of all the pathogenic bacterium we have to teaspoonful to two tablespoonfuls, or even more, deal with, the bacillus turberculosis is one of the and may be given alone immediately after eating most common, and at autopsies it is rare to find if preferred, suitably diluted. a person at 20 years or over who does not present The proportion of egg to milk is retained evidence of a tubercular infection of either the throughout the milk diet, that of one egg to one bronchial or peri-bronchial glands.

pint of milk, as this will lessen the tendency to Treatment.

intestinal putrefaction. Beginning on one pint The sole aim of the physician should be di- of the milk and egg, gradually increasing until rected toward increasing the power of resistance three or more pints are taken at each meal. Ten of the patient, and as soon as this appears, your to 25 percent cream may be added to the milk patient will begin to improve. and the means to an advantage, as well as some acceptable best suited for this purpose are exercise, food, flavoring. fresh air and sunlight. It might be well to sug There may be need, however, for some medical gest that it is not always what you do. so much attention. There are digestive disturbances to as how you do it that counts for your success. contend with, and at times, intestinal disorders

Astounding and incredulous as it may seem, if of a fermentative or putrefactive nature to contend your patient is able to walk, the treatment may with. Gastric fermentation is easily corrected be administered to him or her, and if they are with lime water or chloroform water in suitable faithful in carrying out the treatment as out- quantities. lined. in from four to six weeks improvement will Intestinal troubles are best combatted by withbe noticed.

drawing all food for a day, and cleaning out the From this time on, you will have no trouble patient with a saline laxative, and omitting the to have your patient do as you wish, and most walk. likely, a mild restraint might be advisable.

If cough and night sweats are not too weakHave your patient breathe the outside air at ening, I pay no attention to them, other than to all tirnes, either by sleeping outdoors, or by consider them a barometer to the condition of the means of a window tent. After rising, let him patient. They are nature's efforts to rid the patake a cool sponge bath, to the entire body, fol- tient of bacterium and poisonous toxines. lowed by a friction rub. He should stand erect, To secure sleep if coughing prevents, veronal head back and chest forward, then take one deep in 5 to 10 grain doses may be given. If sweatbreath. hold breath while counting three. then ex- ing is so profuse as to weaken the patient, it can hale slowly. Breathing exercises thrice daily be- be checked by giving one or two granules of fore eating; the first day one deep inhalation, agaricin 1/12 grain, at bedtime. . the second day two, third day three, and so on. To encourage this line of treatment I will menThe reason for deep breathing is obvious. tion one of my patients who was so weak that

Walking is imperative. The majority of tu- she was not able to stand up long enough to wash berculus patients are languid, and disinclined to the dinner dishes, and had not swept a room for do any thing but sit around. No matter how weeks. She was so emaciated that she was they protest in the beginning, insist on their ashamed to have people see her, yet within a year, walking, morning, noon and evening, unless the she walked across the city to my office, a distance weather is too hot. They can dress for all other of over three miles. This was in 1910, and she kinds of weather.

is alive and well today.



By WILLIAM FRANCIS WAUGH, A. M., M. D., Muskegon, Michigan.

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7T IS now twenty-three years since these unfortunates all real desire to be cured. Of

I began to treat the drug-habits. those who were cured of their habits and returned
I look back over an experience to their homes, happy, hopeful, healthy in mind,
in which many an early impres- morals, and physique, few have relapsed.
sion has been corrected, many a In every instance where there was a relapse, the

bright hope dashed by subse cause was the same—too speedy return to the quent failures.

trials and duties of life. While the patient is The lesson of lessons has been that there is with us he feels well and fit, even elated; he eats no universally applicable method of treatment, voraciously, digests rapidly all his stomach can no easy road to success. Every case presents accommodate, sleeps like the proverbial top, and peculiarities that compel a personal study and begins to hunger for his work. And, so, he insists demand treatment fitted to that particular per- upon returning home. Here, however, he finds son. Time and again I have thought a specific accumulation of work, business neglected or mishad been discovered, but each time it proved to managed, household worries, pressing demands of be specific only for certain forms of the malady. every description. For all these past years this Nevertheless, each of these several methods has man has been accustomed to meet unpleasant conapproved itself as the remedy for a certain per- ditions by entrenching himself behind his narcotcentage of the patients; and as all in all there ic; now he must meet them all in the open, unasare only one hundred percent, the proportion sisted, unprotected. His newly acquired strength of unresolved problems diminishes.

is as yet but a sham, a makebelieve. Nature, out· Neither bromides, hyoscine, physostigmine, raged for years, does not fit a man to cope with pilocarpine, quinine, strychnine, picrotoxin, such unusual conditions in the short space of a codeine, emetine, solanine, gelseminine, sparteine, few weeks. The restoration of nerve-power, of cicutine, the Towne-Lambert method, or the bet- vital endurance, of the capacity to bear strain ter system of elimination relied upon by Pettey is a matter of months or maybe years. and myself is applicable to everybody alike. But, Take a violin-string and steep it in whisky for if each of these fifteen “cures" is helpful—as we twenty years--can you expect to put it in tunemay roughly estimate--to six percent of all pa- tension and not have it break? Why, then, extients presenting themselves, then and there re- rect more of a human nerve? Or, how can you main only ten percent to be treated by other demand a nervous system that has been functionmethods.

ing for twenty years under the dominance of morIn these twenty-three years of practice I have phine to work doubly as hard without the master had to record but one death among the patients drug? under treatment. This fatal result followed the Truly, as Voltaire said, "a doctor is an unforuse of ammonium bromide; and then the pre- tunate gentleman, who is expected to perform scribed doses had been quadrupled by an impa- miracles every day.” tient wife during my unavoidable absence.

Too often the patient applies for treatment Quite recently I have had occasion to study only when his means have been exhausted and he my failures, in order to ascertain the causes there- has no money left to buy his habit-drugs, let alone for, and to see whether later experience had shown meeting the expense of a cure. Such persons how they might have been avoided. And this is should go to the county institutions, and not imwhat I ascertained:

pose themselves upon the specialists. Instead of Some of the patients stopped treatment at my this, though, they borrow a little money and go suggestion: they had an incurable disease that pre- to the people who in flamboyant advertisements cluded the disuse of the drugs; or there were such guarantee a cure inside of four days. evidences of mental instability, of weakened will- Can they do it? Sure-if you are willing to power that the chances for a permanent cure were call cutting off the supply of the drug "curing" too small to justify me in advising the trial. For the disease. years I rejected all cocaine-addicts, on account Should it be done that way? Well, we are asof their loss of the moral sense, that took from sured that fools rush in where angels fear to

tread; and when the patient dies or goes insane the verdict that told them the day for possible under the shock—"well, he was no good anyhow cure was past, and have seen the report of their and is better dead!"

sudden death shortly after. Suicide, or refusal The popular ideal treatment is that in which to live in bondage ? the patient sinks off to sleep and in one or two Is there to be no chance for men of small means days awakes to find himself cured. To those who to meet the cost of a term of treatment really careally believe such a thing to be possible, I would pable of curing? suggest an application to the King of the Gob- The ideal might be found in ranch-life. Here, lins—such as they must be believers in fairies the cost of living is reduced to that of food proas well as in fairy-tales.

duction. Men may find opportunities to defray a Hyoscine, chloral, and bromides have been thus part of their expenses by such work as they are used; but do these drugs really effect a cure? capable of doing. Under the eye of the physician, Is such radical therapeutic surgery safe?

they may begin by working lightly for a single An approximation to common sense came in hour in a day; extending their labors as their with the elimination method. Morphinism is a strength rises. toxemia; the habit causes the victim to be sat. On a ranch there are many kinds of work that urated with autogenous toxins——therefore, depu- require time rather than much muscular strength: rate him. Open the doors of elimination and trash to be gathered; muck to be burned; weeds set free these toxic products.

to be exterminated or gathered and prepared for This procedure comes as near as anything yet the herb buyers; samples of seeds to be tested, advanced to being universally applicable, and it promising strains to be crossed, varieties to be certainly reduces to the minimum the suffering developed; pruning, grafting; chickens cared for; during the withdrawal period, provided it is ju- vermin exterminated; soils studied; water tested; diciously fitted to the patient. The Towne plan animals dipped; fences mended; a thousand things is but one more Procrystean bed into which all that should be done but which the rancher can the patients are forcibly made to fit.

not do himself. And why? Simply because here But, does the most skilfully adapted elimina- also the ranch owns him. He can not stop to tion treatment restore the debilitated forces of cut stovewood, because it looks as if it would rain the drug-sustained shell of a body? Is this meth- and the clover must get in first. The team must od at best aught more than a very necessary pre

go to town for stores, but the cows are in the oats liminary?

and the fence must be mended. Nowhere does The true specific treatment begins after the tox- that little giant word MUST loom so large as on ins have been eliminated from the system, the drug a ranch. Nowhere is there more work for the has been discontinued. the withdrawal period is man who can do but little of muscle expenditure. past, and reaction has been fully established. Re- The work is never completed, and its variety is cuperation, rebuilding the shattered forces, resto such that every willing hand, however weak or inration of exhausted vitality are things that take experienced, may find its useful occupation.. time. But here comes the patient/he "must" get N ow to return to our convalescent. The work back to work: "cannot take it easy." How often must always be secondary to the patient's wel-oh! how often—we have opened to the patient fare and under the control of his physician. In the small, narrow door that leads to possible cure other words the physical exercise must form a and been met by the expression: “I must complete part of the cure. this or that work.” Over the monument of every N ota bene—I have no ranch. I have no sanacaptain of industry, of every multimillionaire, torium. I have no ax to grind. I am not bidding every intellectual giant should be written, "Died for drug-habitués. But I do think that some of rather than stop work.”

these physicians who groan over having too little Curious, that these men never realize the truth, to do might take up the idea here set forth and that they do not own their millions, their rail- provide for their unfortunate brethren now unways, their political boss-ships, but that these der the dominion of that Beelzebub, Morphine. things own them. Harriman, lashed to the cow. There is nothing especially difficult in treating and catcher of his locomotive, was more securely en- curing these victims; and there are many more slaved than was Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle than can be cared for by all the real specialists

now engaged in the work. There is a charm in The morphinist is rarely a willing slave. No seeing a human soul save itself, pulling itself out such moral degeneracy attends his habit as that of the slough, putting on the habiliments of selfcaused by alcohol or cocaine. To the last the respecting manhood again. To aid such work is morphinist rebels against his slavery and longs a pleasure, and it is a duty to those who are so for freedom. I have seen men turn away from situated that they can engage in it.


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Land learn whence in

HEN a man begins to do inde- As a matter of fact, I began my remarks by

pendent work; to make his in- expressing my profound appreciation of the able fluence in the interest of the presentation by Dr. Healy, and I did state that larger professional and social there was so much in his paper that was valuable, organization felt; to take a that it would be impossible for me to discuss it

stand for justice and truth, re- in detail without careful study and much more gardless of whom he may jar in his efforts, it is time than would be allotted a single speaker for astonishing how the manipulators of "the ma- discussion. I then waded into an enthusiastic dischine" attempt to hold him back, to try to quell cussion of one statement in his paper, which aphis efforts and fraudulently to present him in a peared to me to be the kernel of his remarks, i. e., wrong light, while what he has been fighting for is that “The actual basis of psychological work in being forced upon the machine gang in spite connection with offenders lies in the fundamental of their opposition. Such unfair play only proves fact that conduct is the direct result of mental to be a boomerang that finds its way back to the life." source from whence it came. It seems that men Dr. Mefford, the secretary of this meeting, inshould learn to do better.

vited me to open the discussion upon this paper, Last spring I received a very courteous letter and the hearty applause given by the audience from the secretary and, also, from the chairman in response to my five-minute talk upon the above of the "Meeting of Alienists and Neurologists of remarks by Dr. Healy, was more than gratifying the United States for the Discussion of Mental to me. Diseases in Their Various Phases,” to be held July But that is not the point. Dr. Healy is a pio13th to 17th, under the auspices of the Chicago neer. He has been blazing the way in medicoMedical Society, at the La Salle Hotel in Chicago, legal psychology or criminology in such manner inviting me to present a paper upon some subject as to excite the envy of those who are not big of my own choice, and to take part in the dis- enough to appreciate his leadership. They are cussions upon the various topics. I entered most too. proud to express a favorable opinion of his heartily into the program, which was so close in work, and when a man who does appreciate a touch with my efforts for the past sixteen years, pathfinder, gives him an enthusiastic applaud, presented my paper, which was published along why not let what he has to say go into print ? with others in the October number of the Illinois Among other things, in discussing his paper, Medical Journal, having discussed four of the I emphasized the correlation of the mental and papers presented upon that occasion.

the physical, showing that conduct was simply In only one instance does my discussion appear the reaction of the individual to the factors of his in the published proceedings, save a very much environment; that, since evolution is, biologically distorted reference to my opening remarks upon considered, the process by which any living orthe paper presented by Dr. William Healy, di- ganism has acquired its distinguishing morphorector of the Psychopathic Institute of the Ju- logical, physiological and psychological charactervenile Court, which, without the main body of my istics, and since the juvenile offender is a living discussion, places me in a false light. These words organism, we are constrained to recognize that are as follows:

the cause of the abnormal—be it designated men"Dr. Munro: There was so much in the paper tal or physical, organic or functional, morphothat is valuable, I certainly could not discuss it logical or psychological-must be found in the enwithout careful study."

vironing conditions of life, which favor the deThese words, standing alone as they do, are a velopment of the morbid, in conduct or otherwise, reflection upon the intelligence of any physician, presenting itself in the symptomatology or beand I can but wonder why my remarks upon that havior of the offender, and that if the offender is occasion, which endorsed the scholarly presenta- to be understood, the environing factors, which tion of Dr. Healy so heartily, as well as his work evoke his individual mode of reaction, must also in the Psychopathic Institute of the Juvenile be taken into consideration, and his heredity as Court, should have been so conspicuously omitted. well.

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