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DOCK'S HISTORY OF NURSING. A History of Nursing from the Earliest Times to the Present Day, with Special Reference to the Work of the Past Thirty Years. Edited and in part written by Lavinia L. Dock, R. N., Secretary of the International Council of Nurses; Graduate of the Bellevue Training School, New York City. In four volumes, Volume III-IV. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York and London. 1912.

In these two volumes Miss Dock discusses the rise of nursing to the modern stage now in vogue all over the world. For instance, about half of Volume 3 is devoted to a history of nursing in Great Britain and Ireland. Then follows a chap ter on the marvellous development of nursing in the United States; then chapters on nursing in northern Europe and France.

In Volume 4 there are chapters on the rise of the German free sisters, and on nursing in Switzerland, Holland and Belgium; finally, nursing in the Orient—China, India, Japan, and “the islands of the sea”, come in for discussion.

Especially interesting are those later chapters, many of which are really records of one phase of medical missionary work, which is filled with stories of heroism with which every American heart should be thrilled.

This is a most interesting book. Nursing is closely bound to medicine. The latter's success depends largely upon the former's efficiency. Every physician should understand what our sisters of the white cap have accomplished—and how better can he learn this than by reading this book?

There seems to be a recrudescence of interest in the Eclectic materia medica, thanks to the activity of a group of able and enthusiastic men, who happen to be good writers as well as energetic and conscientious Eclectic physicians. Dr. Fyfe's new book gives emphasis to this statement.

This volume is built around and upon the late Professor John M. Scudder's two books, “Specific Diagnosis” and “Specific Medication." All the essential parts of these books have been reproduced in the author's own words, but much new material has been added, derived from a variety of sources, so as to bring the work thoroughly down to the times and abreast with modern advancement and discovery.

Professor Fyfe has done this work well, and the present volume is in many respects a remarkable one. We can hardly understand how any Eclectic can get along without it, and we are sure that no physician, whatever his sectarian affiliations, can read it without deriving therefrom very material help.

The book is well printed and bound. The setting is appropriate to the content of the volume.

FYFE'S SPECIFIC DIAGNOSIS AND

MEDICATION. Specific Diagnosis and Specific Medication. By John William Fyfe, M. D. Formerly professor of Specific Medication in the Eclectic Medical College of the City of New York; author of the Essentials of Modern Native Medicine and Therapeutics. Publisher: John K. Scudder, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1914.

STENHOUSE'S EPITOME OF PATHOLOGY.

A manual for Students and Practitioners. By John Stenhouse, M.A., B.Sc. (Edin.) M.B. (Tor.), formerly demonstrator of Pathology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. Second edition, revised and enlarged; including selected list of State Board Examination Questions. 12mo, 27 pages, illustrated. Cloth, $1.00, net. Lea & Febiger, Publishers, Philadelphia and New York, 1913.

While this little book is, of course, not intended as an authoritative work for physicians, many of whom will prefer a larger and more exhaustive presentation of the subject, there are few who can not use it occasionally with very decided advantage. When it is desired to look up something quickly—to get the gist of a topic in a very few words, books like this have a very real utility for

the general practitioner. Dr. Stenhouse's little MANTON'S EPITOME OF OBSTETRICS. work is certainly one of the best of its kind.

A Manual for Students and Practitioners. By The writer of this review was particularly inter- W. P. Manton, M. D., Professor of Obstetrics and ested in the chapter on Immunity, which, consider- Clinical Gynecology, Detroit College of Medicine, ing the space consumed, certainly covers the topic Detroit, Mich. Second edition, revised and enin a satisfactory manner. The chapter on Post larged; including selected list of State Board ExMortem Examinations is also very practical and amination Questions. 12mo, 292 pages, with 97 should be helpful to many a man forced to make engravings. Cloth, $1.00, net. Lea & Febiger, an autopsy on short notice. One feature of the Publishers, Philadelphia and New York, 1913. little book which will appeal to senior medical Here we have another volume in the excellent students is the list of questions on pathology asked “Medical Epitome" series—not an exhaustive work in the various state examinations for licensure. on obstetrics, but a wonderfully complete condenThe embryo doctor will think these worth the sation of facts with which every doctor should be price, even if he doesn't read another thing in it. familiar. As an outline for study it is excellent,

On the whole, therefore, we feel sure that any and we imagine it will be principally used for that physician who may purchase this volume will feel purpose. Medical students will assuredly find it well satisfied with his bargain.

a convenient pocket companion; and there are

few physicians who can not get occasional help DUDLEY'S GYNECOLOGY.

from its pages. The Principles and Practice of Gynecology, for Students and Practitioners. By E. C. Dudley, A.

Treatment of Fissured Hands. M., M. D., ex-president of the American Gynecol- Place in six or eight different parts of the paogical Society; Professor of Gynecology, North- tient's room pieces of blotting paper which have western l'niversity, etc. Sixth Revised Edition, absorbed 2 to 3 drops of the following mixture: with +39 Illustrations and 24 full-page color R Menthol plates. Lea & Febiger, New York City, 1913.

Eucalyptol, of each...............ga. iv

Oil of turpentine....... Price, $5.00.

Oil of juniper, of each...........m v Dudley's Gynecology is too well known to re

The patient can thus inhale the active principle quire any introduction to the readers of this jour

without fatigue and for a continuous time.nal. The preceding editions have been reviewed

BULLING, in Medical Tribune. in these pages, so that more than once we have had opportunity to testify to its value, especially

Inhalation for Chronic Bronchitis. to the general medical readers. This edition shows

Brocq. in Nouveaux remédes, is credited with evidence of careful overhauling and very general

vopneral t!e following combination, a few drops of which revision. · Several chapters have been entirely re- are to be well rubbed over the hands morning. written, and much new matter and a number of new illustrations added. The book is assureilly B Aquæ rosæ

Glycerini neutralis.... fully abreast of modern developments in gyne

Acidi tannici.................gr. viiss cology.

Misce. While it is difficult to select any one part of the Before retiring there should be applied to the book as being better than any other part, we feel affected parts cither pure hydrous wool-fat or one impelled to praise particularly the technical de- of the following preparations: scriptions of operative work. In this special field 1. R Vanillini...................kr. viiss Doctor Dudley has few peers, and he knows how

Olei rosæ..................gtt.j to describe clearly as well as operate skillfully

Adipis lanæ hydrosi........gr. lxxv

et ft. unguentum. Especially noteworthy is his description of the 2. R Mentholis....... .........gr. xxij steps in perineorraply, an operation in which Phenylis salicylatis. ..........gr. xxx many physicians are greatly interested.

Olei olivæ...................5 iiss

Adipis lanæ hydrosi..........z iss Dudley's Gynecology is a good book to own.

M. et ft. unguentum. While few physicians can be gynecologists, every physician should know something very definite and

Chapped Hands.

R Mentholis pulveris. ...........gr. xz clean-cut about the diseases of women. This book

Phenylis salicylatis. .........gr. Xxx is a reliable and helpful guide and—to stretch the

Olei olivæ.................f 3 iij meaning of the word somewhat—"encyclopedia” Adipis lanæ hydrosi........ Z iss for this special field.

M. et ft. ung.-Merck's Archives.

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statement made by headquarters that Armour's Pepsin is without superior.

THE THERAPY OF CHRONIC COUGHS.

The logical therapy of chronic coughs does not lie in the use of soothing expectorants whose main purpose is the blunting of the mucosa's sensibility and which do not really help the bronchial tree free itself of the cough's cause—such treatment is palliative.

The logical treatment of chronic coughs embraces the continued use of a tissue food which will enable the system to throw off a cough—Cord. Ext. 01. Morrhuæ Comp. (Hagee) for instance. Cod liver oil in the form of this cordial quickly demonstrates its marked value in this condition.

THE TREATMENT OF RHEUMATIC IN

FECTIONS. The book bearing the above title comes from the press of Parke, Davis & Co., and is the story of the remarkable results achieved with phylocogens in the treatment of rheumatism.

After a preliminary chapter, telling of the history of these preparations, describing their modus operandi and giving details of their mode of employment, a special article on Rheumatism Phylocogen follows, with reports of many cases, drawn from the experience of many physicians.

Certainly this is a book which will interest any physician having cases of rheumatism to treat. It is, presumably, furnished to physicians on request.

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THE PNEUMONIA CONVALESCENT. While the course and progress of acute lobar pneumonia is short, sharp and decisive, the impression made upon the general vitality is often profound, and apparently out of proportion to the duration of the disease. Even the robust, sthenic patient is likely to emerge from the defervescent period with an embarrassed heart and general prostration. In such cases the convalescent should be closely watched and the heart and general vitality should be strengthened and supported, and this is especially true as applied to the patient who was more or less devitalized before the invasion of the disease. For the purpose indicated, strychnia is a veritable prop upon which the embarrassed heart and circulation can lean for strength and support. As a general revitalizing agent is also needed at this time, it is an excellent plan to order Pepto-Mangan (Gude), to which should be added the appropriate dose of strychnia, according to age, condition and indications. As a general tonic and bracer to the circulation, nervous system and the organism generally, this combination cannot be surpassed.

mour a gold medal, the highest award in the class, for Digestive Ferments (Pepsin and Pancreatin). We present photographs of the two sides herewith.

The medal is a handsome one; it represents the acknowledgment of the jury selected by this great scientific body of men that Armour's Pepsin and Pancreatin were of such quality as to entitle them to this award, a verdict that bears out the

Volume XXXVII. Number 4.

Medicar
Standard

APRIL

1914

THE USE OF NARCOTIC DRUGS IN THE develop a degree of 'Dutch courage that is someSOUTH.

times almost incredible. A large proportion of That the use of narcotic drugs is increasing much the wholesale killings in the South during recent more rapidly in the southern states than in the years have been the direct result of cocaine, and north, is a fact pretty generally understood, al- frequently the perpetrators of these crimes have though the extent of this abuse of these dangerous been hitherto inoffensive, law-abiding negroes.” agents is not generally appreciated.

A peculiar feature to which Doctor Williams According to Dr. Edward H. Williams, who has calls attention is the fact that the drug renders contributed an interesting article upon this sub- its user immune to shock to an astonishing deject to the Medical Record of February 7, the gree. An ordinary bullet will not stop an individpercentage of drug-takers in the hospitals for the ual who is crazed with the drug, and it is declared insane of New York State is only 1 in 386 per- that the police officers in the South have increased sons. On the other hand, in Georgia, this propor- the caliber of their guns for the express purpose tion is 1 in 42; in North Carolina, 1 in 84; in one of "stopping" the cocaine-fiend when he runs Tennessee hospital, 1 in 74; in one Mississippi amuck. institution, it is 1 in 46, and in another 1 in 23. Why is it that the negroes have taken to coIn other words, the proportion of drug-takers ad- caine? Doctor Williams' answer to this question mitted to the insane-hospitals in the South is from is a novel and interesting one. A colored man five to fifteen times as great as it is in New York to whom he put the question, as to why he began State. Nor is this increase entirely among the taking cocaine, answered by saying, “Because I negroes. Indeed, as regards the use of morphine, couldn't get nothin' else, Boss”. This, Doctor the number of habitués of that drug seems to be Williams thinks, is the key to the situation. The greater among whites than among blacks.

use of cocaine has increased in the South for the The principal drug used, however, is cocaine, simple reason that the negroes have been denied and this substance works its greatest injury among the use of alcoholic drinks. the colored population. Doctor Williams declares, During recent years this whole section has been further, that the majority of the cocaine-takers swept by a wave of prohibition legislation. The do not reach the insane-hospitals, and this mainly white men themselves can secure all the alcohol because they are intercepted on their way to that they want without difficulty, but, realizing its distermination by various institutions for the pun- astrous effect upon the negro population, they ishment of crime. In other words, the cocaine- have made it virtually impossible for the colored taker is very likely to become a criminal, and some people to secure drink in any form. This is of the penal institutions of the South are already the reason, declares Doctor Williams, why the taxed to their capacity by these "fiends,” and the negro has taken to habit-drugs. They produce authorities admit their inability to prevent colored pleasant intoxicant effects that appeal to their people from getting their supply. There is an senses. He declares that it is a significant fact enormous underground traffic in the drug, and that in such cities as Raleigh, Asheville, and Knoxany negro who can scrape together the few cents ville, where saloons have been abolished, the use necessary can secure a supply whenever he wants of cocaine is increasing at an alarming rate.

Whether Doctor Williams' explanation is the Doctor Williams declares that the negro who correct one or not, we do not know, but, frankly, has become a cocaine-dope taker is a constant we view it with suspicion. It amounts to the menace to his community. “His whole nature is statement that vice of some kind is a necessity, changed for the worse by the ‘habit'. Sexual and that as between two evils we should accept desires are increased and perverted, peaceable the least. We have enough faith in human nature negroes become quarrelsome, and timid negroes —even in negro human nature to believe that it is quite possible to wipe out all drug habits in patient in a portion of the house so that he will the South-even the alcohol habit. But, the not come into contact with other members of the negro should be considered as a teachable child, family, such members will be permitted to go about and a course of systematic instruction undertaken their work in their usual way, with the exception which will show him where these vices inevitably that children in apartments or dwellings where the lead. We have an excess of reformers here in patient is quarantined must not be permitted to the North; why not send some of them South for attend school or other public places of assembly. that educational purpose ?

it.

Furthermore, in cases of diphtheria, for instance,

those living in such families and who wish to atTHE QUARANTINE OF CONTAGIOUS tend to their usual duties will be subject to inDISEASES.

spection and will only be permitted to go about The Chicago Department of Health has at last providing cultures taken from their throats show recognized the fact that the iron-clad quarantine negative results as regards the presence of the which has been in vogue in this city was in reality organisms of the disease. Even the attendants inoperative as the result of its very stringency, who have direct . charge of the care of the sick and Commissioner Young has, accordingly, evolved may be prohibited from leaving the house except a new plan for the segregation of the patient, under certain restrictions, the most important of which, while on its face much more liberal than these being the absence from their throats of the any heretofore attempted, really promises to ac- diphtheria bacilli. complish far more than was possible under the old

The essence of this ruling is that the patient regulations.

must be kept in a room apart from the rest of the The trouble with the older method was, that it

house and that no one shall be permitted to enter imposed such actual hardships upon the people, this room except the personal attendants. It and especially upon people who were compelled recognizes the fact, now well established, that the to work for a livelihood and to whom the com- principal source for the conveyance of the disease pulsory quarantine was such a real disaster, that

is the "carrier,” and that mere contact with a perthey sought every means of evading it. The at

son sick, with diphtheria, scarlet-fever, measles, tending physician was constantly put under pres

whooping-cough, and similar diseases is not sure by his patients and their families, constantly

sufficient for the transmission of the disease to a being importuned not to report cases of this char- third party acter. As a result, there probably were thousands

Naturally, we cannot give the details of the new of cases of diphtheria, scarlet-fever, measles, and regulations in their completeness. They are printed

in full in the Bulletin of the Department of other contagious diseases that never reached the attention of the health-authorities.

Health for February 21, 1914, and those who are Furthermore, as is pointed out in a recent

interested should secure a copy of this issue; howBulletin of the Department of Health, “there are

ever, we wish to register at this time our hearty a very considerable number of people who comply approval of the plan, which is distinctly a step with the law to the extent of reporting their forward, and which, in our opinion, will have the cases, but who, while to all outward appearances

effect of decidedly reducing the incidence of conobserving quarantine precautions, are rank viola

tagious diseases in Chicago. tors with respect to complete isolation of the

We commend the method to other cities who patient and attendant.”

still maintain the old-fashioned “shotgun quaranThis second class is probably a source of even tine” of our grandfathers. The day of unintelligreater danger than the first, since the physician

gent force and subservience to iron-clad rules, and who takes upon himself the responsibility for the

of inadequate care in handling of the sick is spread of the disease is likely to insist upon the rapidly passing. It has gone out entirely in the maximum care in isolation and in household sani- treatment of such diseases as yellow-fever and tation.

plague. It should go out at once in the manageThe new rules of the Health Department, which ment of diphtheria and scarlet-fever. +ook effect March 1, undoubtedly will relieve much of the tension. The city is divided into one hun THE LIFE-EXTENSION LEAGUE. dred school-inspection districts, and these districts It is probable that we owe largely to the lifeare again subdivided into field-districts and quar- insurance companies the establishment of the new antine-districts. A force of inspectors and nurses corporation known as "The Life-Extension Inare to be assigned to each division, who will be stitute,” in which many of our leading sanitarians charged with the enforcement of the regulations and reformers are interested. A list of the board

Hereafter, when it is possible to isolate the of directors reads like a page from the faculty

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