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against the Lord.” Exod. xvi. 8. And, "they have not rejected thee, but they have rejected me.” 1 Sam. viii. 7. “ He that despiseth our commandment, despiseth not man, but God.” Thess. iv. 8. Again, chap. viii. 17, 18. Christ speaketh thus; “In your law it is written, the testimony of two men is true; I am one that bear witness of myself, and the Father that sent me, beareth witness of me.” Where observe, that the doctrine of the numerical unity of the Father and the Son in essence and in actions, destroys Christ's argument, and turns it into a paralogism; for
upon this supposition the Pharisees might have answered, that the testimony of two men might well be deemed the testimony of two witnesses, because they were as to nature numerically different, and their testimony contained two different actions, the testimony of one being not the testimony of the other; whereas, the testimony of the Father and Son, were only the same numerical action of them both; and so could not properly be said to be two testimonies.
And “Say you of him whom the Father hath sanctified, and sent into the world, Thou blasphemest, becaise I said, I am the Son of God ?"* John X. 37. From this answer it is evident, first, that they accused our Lord of blasphemy, not for saying “I and the Father are one,” V. 30. but for styling God his Father, and so in effect saying, he was the Son of God. For this is the reason of that accusation, which our Lord here speaks of. Secondly, our Lord here proves himself to be the Son of God, because the “ Father had sanctified him, and sent him into the world,” whereas he, who hath one numerical essence with the Father, must do the same action, which the Father doth, and so must sanctify himself, and send himself into the world. Thirdly, he proves himself to be the Son of God, because he did the works of his Father
* Sanctificatum se a Patre proponit; dum ergo sanctificationem accipit à Patre, minor Patre est, minor autem Patre consequenter, sed Filius. Pater enim si fuisset, sanctificationem dedisset, non accepisset; nunc autem profitendo se accipere Sanctificationem a Patre, hoc ipso, quo Patre se minorem accipiendo ab ipso sanctificationem probat, Filium se esse, non Patrem monstravit. Novat. c. 22.
of his father ; for so it immediately follows, “If I do not the works of my Father, believe me not to be his Son." V. 38. Now these works, saith he, I do iv óvónatı Toll rareos, in my Father's name, that is, not by my own, but by his authority and power ; whereas he, who is numerically one in essence with the Father, must do his works by one and the same authority and power.
Fifthly, no numerical essence can do an action by another; for, where the essence is the same, the action must proceed from the same essence, and so not be done by another. And yet it is expressly said, that “God created all things by Jesus Christ.” Ephes. iii. 9. That“ by him he made the worlds." Heb. i. 2. That “God will judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ.” Rom. ij. 15. “ He that
raised up the Lord Jesus Christ, shall raise us up also by Jesus.” i Cor. iv. 14. “ It pleased the Father by him to reconcile all things to himself.” Col. i. 19, 20. “ Likewise reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto God through Jesus Christ our Lord.” Rom. vi. 11. and, verse 23.
“For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.” And, “I thank God, through Jesus Christ our Lord.” Chap. vii. 25. And again, “ Unto him be glory in the church by Christ Jesus.” Eph. iii. 21. And,
And, “ My God shall supply all your needs, according to his riches in glory, by Christ Jesus.” Phil. iv. 19.
For the same reason, we could not, upon this supposition, properly be said to have things from God, or to do things to God by Christ; to have "peace with God died by, or through, our Lord Jesus Christ." Rom. v. 1. 11. " To the only wise God be glory, dree by our Lord Jesus Christ." Rom. xvi. 27. “ Thanks be to God who hath given us the victory, drac by our Lord Jesus Christ.” i Cor. xv. 57. “ Such hope have we to God, by Christ.” 2 Cor. iii. 4. 66 We are filled with the fruits of righteousness, which are by Jesus Christ to the glory of God the Father. Phil. i. 11. “We give thanks, Deqi rad Matei, to God, even the Father, by him.” Colos. iii. 17. “We offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God, through Jesus Christ."
1 Pet. ïi. 5. “That God in all things may be glorified, through Jesus Christ." Chap. iv. 11. Now, if Christ be the same only wise God, acting by the same individual essence, can glory be given to him by our Lord, and not by himself? Can our sacrifices be acceptable to God by him, and not also to bim? Or can God in all things be glorified by himself ? “By him," saith St Paul, “ let us offer up our sacrifices of praise to God always.” Heb. xiii. 15. And, if he be the same individual essence, must they not be offered also to him, as well as by him?
In fine, it is observable, that, though our modern writers do endeavour to prove from the miracles our Saviour did, that he was the same supreme God with the Father, yet Christ himself doth only use them to prove, that he was sent by the Father, and had commission from him to deliver this message to the world. As is evident from these words, “But I have greater witness than that of John ; for the works which the Father hath given me to finish, the same works that I do, bear witness of me, that the Father hath sent me.” John v. 36. And, when he raised up Lazarus from the dead, he speaks thus to his Father, "Father, I know that thou hearest me always; but this I said, that they (the Jews] might believe that thou hast sent me." John xi. 42.
Hence it is certain, that there can be no communication, internal production, or necessary emanation of the individual essence of the Father to the Son. First, because, as I have already proved, an individual essence cannot be communicated; and also because a particular essence, subsisting by itself, in intelligent beings, as the essence of the Father is, is the same as a person ; and therefore cannot be communicated without the communication of the person. And yet, it is on all hands granted, that the person of the Father, as a selfexisting being, was not, and cannot be communicated to the Son.
Secondly, internal production, that is, production in the essence of the Father, is indeed no production at all. For, since this internal production is said to give to the Son no distinct existence of its own, it is manifest it is a production of nothing, that is, no production at all ; for that which hath no existence of its own, is not produced. Nor,
Thirdly, can the Son's essence be produced by necessary emanation.
Because such emanation, and the essence from which it emanateth, would both be as equally self-existent, as it is equally necessary for God to be an intelligent being, and to be at all. For whatever necessarily and essentially belongs to that which is self-existent, is itself self-existent, as being indeed only the very same thing apprehended under a partial consideration. And, again, it is the general doctrine of the Antenicene Fathers, that the Son was produced by the will of the Father. This is expressly taught by